*I posted on a new Discord today about Black holes and thought I would share expanded thoughts here*. First, I think we should not make black holes so mysterious. They are similar to all other sizable orbs in the universe — planets and stars — because the ‘force of gravity’ is intense enough to overpower other forces and transmute matter-energy into different forms via a reaction. In some cases it is nuclear reactions breaking down the matter-energy in the orb. In other cases it is a very dense high energy state of the core and reactions and phases at energy levels we can only imagine.

We already know about dense iron cores of planets, and stars made entirely of neutrons, and there is speculation of quark stars and so on. Well, just imagine all that as layers inside a black hole. As the density, energy, and compression of spacetime increase, the amount of matter-energy in a small space grows as we would expect. So the ultimate question is whether there is a limit to the density of matter-energy?

Wikipedia

In astrophysics and nuclear physics, nuclear pasta is a theoretical type of degenerate matter that is postulated to exist within the crusts of neutron stars. If it does in fact exist, nuclear pasta is the strongest material in the universe. Between the surface of a neutron star and the quark–gluon plasma at the core, at matter densities of 1014 g/cm3, nuclear attraction and Coulomb repulsion forces are of similar magnitude. The competition between the forces leads to the formation of a variety of complex structures assembled from neutrons and protons. Astrophysicists call these types of structures nuclear pasta because the geometry of the structures resembles various types of pasta.

Let’s focus on the core. Let’s say the black hole ingests an atom of something on the periodic table. *Aside : I am using the interpretation that the event horizon is not a hard clank onto the Planck core. I am not exactly sure what nature actually does. Calling all astrophysicists to collaborate!* As that atom proceeds towards the center (possibly in a spiral or chaotic path at some layers) the atom will start reacting due to the forces acting upon it. At some point the atom will decompose into protons, neutrons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and other exotics. Then those will reduce to quarks and electrons and photons and Noether engines and the whole standard model. What comes next? Why do scientists say that the standard matter particle-wave duality objects are fundamental and indivisible, yet they can transmute from one to another? Do standard matter particles decompose to a new level of elementary energy carrying objects? **Of course they do!**

Albert and Mileva Einstein’s math does not define a limit on the radius or curvature of spacetime. That means people get all weird and wonky about singularities and wormholes although I think most scientists dismiss those out of hand. The real question then is what does nature do at that scale? I’ll put my money on dusting off point charges from the physics discard pile and giving those point charges a sphere of immutability at the scale of the Planck length and implemented via a field effect that also defines the limit of permeability and permittivity.

A writhing mass of immutable point charges ultimately gets so closely packed that kinetic energy drops to zero. **The structure freezes relative to the other point charges. One microstate. Entropy equals zero. That is a huge breakthrough in understanding of nature’s limit. **

When we say that a Planck core freezes, that is with kinetic energy as the root cause of temperature. It is another of nature’s wonders to associate a frozen state of point charges with the ultimate high energy state of point charges. Yet, this is just an artifact of how we measure kinetic energy as temperature, which is a subset of total energy, which includes electromagnetic energy. No wonder physics is so confused about entropy and information. When packed into a Planck core each point charge is carrying the Planck energy, which is the highest possible energy that can be carried by a point charge.

Note : I described an idealized non-spinning SMBH scenario. I look forward to professionals figuring out what to make of a spinning Planck core. A spinning core has kinetic energy again. Perhaps the maelstrom is required to truly reach the Planck core state. Is high spin required to create a polar breach and jet event? We are talking frame dragging as intense as possible near the core.

Immutable point charges and the Planck core state are what replaces the singularity and prevents a number of issues in physics caused by the unnatural assumption that radius goes to zero and curvature goes to infinity. This mechanism also provides a physical explanation for the accepted science that says black holes have a temperature of zero degrees. We must conclude that general relativity is incredibly accurate at large scales relative to point charges, because ultimately there are physical electric, kinetic, and geometric limits. There are also steps and complicated manifolds depending on what exactly is in proximity or flying by at any moment in absolute time.

Every immutable point charge in a Planck core carries the Planck energy in an ultimate convergence of electromagnetic and kinetic forms. Perhaps to reach this ultimate Planck core state may require some level of spin of the solid Planck core. Imagine the field lines emanating from each electrino and positrino. This is another point where the concepts are somewhat overwhelming and it would be very helpful to have collaborators. My guess is that this will all be child’s play for the professionals. This stuff gets right to the core of the Virial theorem and how we define potential energy and all the related theory bedrock.

It’s ironic that just like particles decompose as energy and density increase so do theories have a run or a range of applicability. The farther you drill down, the more you understand how higher level theories were able to be predictive and accurate in their ranges of applicability. An interesting and fun problem is figuring out which theories apply as you get down to those final few Planck lengths before the immutable point charge structure freezes. This is highly relevant to the determination of what is fundamental and what is emergent. For example, is the Planck scale emergent in some sense?

Turns out, that when immutable point charges, with a sphere of immutability, get close enough and are cubic packed (FCC or HCP), the math produces a 10^{113} energy density which is a number QFT also generates but has no clue what it means. This is called the cosmological constant problem or the vacuum catastrophe. Also, if you think about it, the interior particles of that Planck particle core would have no way to transmit their energy since their neighbors are maxed out. Imagine that! All the energy held in that interior volume that was formerly gravitationally attracting mass when stuff fell in to the black hole is now **no longer participating in gravity**. This might have something to do with galaxy rotation curves. Also, a Planck core would have only one microstate, thus **entropy of zero and zero information**. That knocks down some big problems and also affects the 2nd Law. The Planck core has a two-dimensional surface area of outer point charges that can exchange energy outward at that moment. I guarantee you this is not like gentle reaction. This is the most rigid matter-energy possible interfacing with the next-most rigid matter-energy. Talk about frame dragging!

Let’s not forget that the surface mass presented by a Planck core is a very small fraction of the shielded interior energy that is not presented as mass. Volume grows as the cube of radius. Area grows as the square of radius. I will leave it to the brilliant people of the next era to figure out when and where energy and/or mass shielding occur and under what conditions. It appears to be something that will cross over many disciplines and the first exercise will be to understand if there are any dynamical energy or mass shielding processes in their purview. Here’s a bizarre clue : It seems that protons and neutrons somehow uncork the energy of the generation II and III dipoles which had been shielded in the ingredients quarks. Is this possible? How does it work? What was the exact sequence in which they formed and why were they resilient at that energy and lower?

I’m thinking this is the reality of how black holes work and that means an adjustment will be needed in current black hole theory from these new insights.

*J Mark Morris : San Diego : California*

p.s., I hope that my writings are useful to creative people who seek inspiration in how other people put together ideas in new or discarded ways, but somehow differently to reveal new insights. Doing so is not only an art but it can be a precursor to any intellectual activity. Trying to understand the network of connections and the strength of any area of the network. Looking for inconsistencies, weaknesses, the poker tell of the physicists. Imagining new ideas, unconstrained. At first imagining in limited domains trying to develop connections and insights. Over time expanding that network to a greater understanding. This is really the progress of science, the state of the art network of understanding. Occasionally we are fortunate to experence a paradigm shift that transforms the foundations. Those are super-fun eras of science because so much opportunity and investment is available. I hope you enjoy following the development of the next era : immutable point charge physics as described by NPQG.