Instead of talking about dark matter, perhaps we should say “A more general theory of dynamics must exist; we just need to figure out what it is.”

Let’s start with these questions :

- How does nature allow particles to transact energy in multiples of h-bar angular momentum?
- How does a spacetime geometry store energy?
- How do particles transmute between different forms if they are fundamental and indivisible?
- How does nature decide if a single h-bar is to be transacted?
- What are virtual particles and how can they be almost real particles?
- Why is it that physicists can’t really explain spin?

Now, transport yourself back 150+ years ago to 1870 and start thinking about classical point charges, but give them a model with a field effect that makes them immutable at a radius near the Planck length ~10^-35. Then, astro folks, just think about orbits of point charges with Coulombs law. You are the world’s best scientists for orbits. Give the particle physicists some outreach and help them understand orbits of point charges. Besides the forces of attraction and the kinetic centrifugal (did I get that right?) force, also model the transit time for each point charges electromagnetic field, and also the B fields. Now, imagine that every standard matter particle has at least one orbiting pair of point charges and that those orbits are determined by a system with feedback, so it transacts angular momentum in h-bar.

Dr. McGaugh, this is all you need for a more general theory of dynamics : two point charge types. the electrino at -e/6 and the positrino at +e/6, the energy they carry, and a Euclidean space and time. After some thought experiments you will realize that an electrino:positrino dipole is a variable clock and a stretchy ruler. Next, you realize that both spacetime and matter-energy have variable clocks and stretchy rulers. Therefore, spacetime is not a geometry, but an aether of relatively low energy structures also based upon dipoles. Lastly, would the Michelson Morley experiment be defeated by an aether made of particles that maintain a relationship between their clock (frequency) and ruler (radius of orbit) such that c is a constant? You bet it would.

Each galaxy proper generates spacetime aether. The aether production is both local to the galaxy via many various processes and beyond the galaxy via the decay of photons and neutrinos and any other point charge structures that depart the galaxy. This radiation of spacetime aether may ebb and flow and be driven by many different processes. I can imagine future astrophysicists modeling, measuring, and mapping all the aether generating processes and their periodicity, duration, moles of aether produced per unit time average, and moles of aether produced by specific events during the event lifetime.

Thus the universe as a whole is expanding, yet it is galaxy-local, and its cluster, and tapers off with distance, especially when photons and neutrinos redshift enough to lose their planar shape, gain mass, react(?), slow down, and get captured by gravity. However, the universe is not expanding outwards as a whole.

Scientists have measured and modeled and as far as they can tell the universe is flat. That makes emminent sense give the background is Euclidean space and time! Therefore, the inflation/expansion centered on each galaxy must be balanced by aether consuming processes in the galaxy or cluster or in the intergalactic or intercluster medium — the cosmic web. Therefore the reactions that convert spacetime aether to standard-matter energy result in the universe locally folding inward on itself in a sense, by precipitating matter in many ways, including pair production in the vast depths of space perhaps or as passing photons or neutrinos react with each other or aether after who knows how much loss of energy due to redshift.

Let’s not forget that we don’t know the entire catalog of aether consuming reactions inside a galaxy at this point. So we are merely brainstorming. This new era is a wide open green field. Will this be testable anytime soon? One problem is that we are working with theoretical immutable point charges at 10^-35 while the best we can measure is at least 15 orders of magnitude more coarse and that is only in very specific experimental conditions. I think it is fair to say that the matter-energy in each galaxy is continuously exploding, erupting, and emitting radiation via a great variety of processes.

I’ve found that the biggest challenge to the exponential growth of the new era is the inertia of physicists beliefs in half true, **bigger half false** but only partially understood priors, and as alluded to earlier, the framing of a search for a cause with presuppositional memes (dark matter — DM, dark energy — DE, big bang — BB, etc.). I love the idea of encouraging physicists to create their own Apollo 13 moments and spend quality time thinking about tricky interpretations like what if LeMaitre had projected backwards in time to many distributed inflationary mini-bangs? Or, what if spacetime expands outward from each galaxy but in opposition to each other neighboring galaxy? Stipulate for the discussion these are true and they reproduce the same inflationary big bang and redshift-distance effects. Then, and only then, think how things might work quite differently but essentially result in the same math and observations as general relativity (GR) and quantum mechanics (QM).

I am very excited about the next era of science informed by Neoclassical Physics and Quantum Gravity. I really hope NPQG takes off soon, because there are so many questions I have about the universe and we need to get many thousands of scientists working on research and technologies based on immutable point charges. This is is a game changer to the Nth dimension.

Here are some questions I would love to see outreach blogs and vlogs cover :

- What do we know about the SMBH jet knots or terminus?
- Why are there sometimes multiple knots?
- Were they formed from a single jet event or multiple jet events of different duration or intensity?
- What do we know about what is happening close to the jet from the SMBH to the terminus?
- What are all the stages of the jets?
- How long do jets last?
- Can jets be asymmetric, like one pole starts long before the other or finishes long after the other?
- If only one jet was active, would it accelerate the SMBH and if so, how far might it go and what would that do to galaxy dynamics?

I model the universe as a Euclidean space and time void background permeated by immutable point charges, the electrino at -e/6 and the positrino at +e/6, plus the energy carried by those point charges. Then emergence. So we arrive at electron = nine electrinos + three positrinos. Proton = fifteen electrinos + twenty-one positrinos. Neutron = eighteen electrinos + eighteen positrinos. PDG formulas check out, iff and only if spacetime is an aether of relatively low energy Noether conservation cores.

Long story short — the electrino:positrino orbiting dipole is a structure component that is used one or many times per standard model particle. The orbiting dipole has a maximum curvature at the Planck frequency. Immutability solves many problems.

*J Mark Morris : San Diego : California*