Let’s remap the Big Bang cosmology timeline to the point charge universe! We’ll start with the Planck epoch which is labeled “quantum gravity wall” in the first figure. Additional figures show relevant information and concepts. After that, we’ll delve into remapping the Big Bang timeline to the more sensible and parsimonious point charge universe.

The diagram below starts with the so called “Big Bang.” At this stage all forces are presumed combined. As time progresses the figure illustrates separation of the gravitational force in the Planck epoch at 10^{-43} seconds.

The diagram below covers the information in a detailed lively infographic.

Now let’s turn to remapping the Big Bang timeline onto the quasi steady state point charge universe. On the left are statements from notable sources as indicated. On the right is the NPQG Cosmology.

[*W=Wikipedia, T=David Tong Lectures, L=LibreTexts, H=HyperPhysics*]

Big Bang Cosmology | NPQG Cosmology |
---|---|

The first figure says “quantum gravity wall” and “spacetime description breaks down” in reference to the Planck epoch. | The “quantum gravity wall” may correspond to a Planck point charge core of an SMBH. The ultimate energy state is point charges packed so densely that they are frozen in place relative to their neighbors. Counterintuitively, this is the next energy step beyond the Planck frequency for a point charge dipole in a supermassive black hole. A frozen Planck core has one micro-state and zero entropy. Note that as a whole, the frozen Planck core can spin with the SMBH. Certainly in the frozen state it is not possible for point charges to implement Einstein’s spacetime. Near to the Planck core we would expect to find colliding and vibrating dipoles and it must be possible for dipoles to decay otherwise the universe would be quite boring. An area for research is when exactly would we say spacetime emerges? When do the super-stealthy Higgs Noether cores form? |

The Planck scale is the physical scale beyond which current physical theories may not apply and cannot be used to reliably predict any events. [W] | With NPQG we can analytically prove the maximum curvature of an orbiting dipole, which is what defines the Planck scale. This is a tremendous advancement, because in the GR/QM/LCDM era the Planck scale appears in many equations, yet scientists have been unable to determine why such a scale exists, how it is implemented, and whether it expresses a limit. Now we know that an orbiting dipole in which the velocity of the point charges reaches field speed * pi/2 defines the maximum energy, maximum frequency, minimum radius, and maximum curvature of a dipole orbit. Note that this maximum energy dipole is theoretical and is a projection for an isolated dipole. In a supermassive black hole, densely packed orbiting dipoles would certainly collide with one another and even potentially reverse direction in a momentum conserving reaction. This extreme energy Brownian motion most likely exhibits different behaviour to the ideal isolated high energy dipole. |

During the Planck epoch, cosmology and physics are assumed to have been dominated by the quantum effects of gravity. [W] | GR/QM/LCDM era science does not understand how gravity is implemented. Orbiting dipoles are formed in the Planck epoch and those dipoles are the first assembly to form. Orbiting dipoles implement the quantum of angular momentum as well as Einstein’s stretchy ruler and variable clock. In that sense we start to see some behaviour with hints of Einstein’s general relativity in the Planck epoch. However, it is not clear whether nested dipoles have yet formed at this time. |

In Big Bang cosmology, the Planck epoch is the earliest stage of the Big Bang, before the time passed was equal to the Planck time, t_{P}, or approximately 10^{−43}seconds. [W] | The background of the universe is Euclidean time and 3D space upon which we can define absolute time and absolute distance. However, it is a bit nuanced. There are no clocks or rulers in the empty void of time and space. We can tell if a point charge is moving in absolute time and space if it generates a path history other than a stationary point. Moving charges have a path history and an associated stream of emitted potential spheres. We can also use the structures in the universe as proxies for distance and time. When we do so, me must account for the overlay of Higgs spacetime aether which is capable of distorting our observations, especially around concentrated matter. Fortunately, the energy gradients in deep spacetime are flat enough that spacetime approximates Euclidean time and space. |

There is no currently available physical theory to describe such short times, and it is not clear in what sense the concept of time is meaningful for values smaller than the Planck time. [W] | NPQG provides the physical theory. Absolute time is continuous and we are free to use real numbers to describe a continuous variable. Even at the Planck frequency we can conceptually imagine the point charges in the dipole orbiting each other on continuous paths through time and space. |

At this scale, the unified force of the Standard Model is assumed to be unified with gravitation. [W] | At the Planck scale and all scales nature is simply point charges interacting with coincident potential spheres. Everything is unified at all scales. The confusion in the GR/QM/LCDM era is in regards to the behaviours of emergent assemblies. Dipoles implement the strong force. Personality charges in the polar regions of dipoles implement the weak force as well as the electromagnetic force. Gravity is implemented by an interaction between standard matter assemblies and the Higgs spacetime aether assemblies. |

Big Bang (𝑡<10^{−43}s) : The current laws of physics break down. [O] | It is worth clarifying here that stating 𝑡<10^{−43}s is a misnomer in several aspects. In NPQG 𝑡=10^{−43}s maps to a Planck core in an SMBH that is frozen with the Planck energy per point charge (or per point charge pair – TBD). Time in this sense may be a function of the frequency of each dipole, which is zero in the Planck core. Note that this is not some universe wide time scale, but time relative to each SMBH Planck core individually and independently. Also, in terms of absolute time in the Euclidean frame, it is always marching onwards with no dependency on whether Planck cores are frozen and not experiencing time or not. In summary, the Big Bang timeline must be reframed as referring to Einsteinian time as embedded in an aether of Higgs spacetime assemblies. Since Planck scale velocity of the charges in an orbiting dipole is greater than potential field speed there are remaining open questions about how to map the time in spacetime to absolute time for point charge plasma that escapes the Planck core. In particular, when we examine the times in the cosmology timeline, do they need to be recast for Einstein’s time dilation. How do we map time in extreme energy spacetime to absolute time? |

At the end of the initial Big Bang event, the temperature of the universe is ~𝑇=10^{32}K. [O] | We see the reference to the temperature 𝑇 = ~10^{32}K in reference to the Planck epoch. What does this mean? Temperature is a measure of kinetic energy. However, at lower energies, temperature may map to the kinetic energy of weak personality charges and not include the energy of the Noether core point charges. If so, what is temperature at energy scales where weak personality charges haven’t yet bonded to Noether cores? Is there some transition where temperature now corresponds to the kinetic energy of the Noether core itself or the constituent dipoles if the Noether core has not yet formed, or the constituent individual point charges if dipoles have not yet come to dominate? GR/QM/LCDM era science is vague on these points because they have no knowledge of the point charge basis of nature. It may be that 𝑇 = ~10^{32}K is a projection of formulas for the Planck scale metrics. |

“In 1931, Lemaître published a paper in Nature. In it, he proposed the primeval atom and described the initial evolution of the Universe in terms of the decay of an unstable radioactive nucleus. He thus combined the new science of nuclear physics with the second law of thermodynamics, which says that over time, order tends to give way to disorder. He made no effort to explain where this original nucleus came from. This is how Lemaître unleashed his vision of cosmic birth:“This atom is conceived as having existed for an instant only, in fact, it was unstable and, as soon as it came into being, it was broken into pieces which were again broken, in their turn; among these pieces electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc., rushed out. An increase in volume resulted, the disintegration of the atom was thus accompanied by a rapid increase in the radius of space which the fragments of the primeval atom filled, always uniformly.” ” Marcel Gleiser | The primeval atom of Lemaitre sounds remarkable similar to a Planck core in a supermassive black hole. |

We’ve begun to remap the LCDM cosmology timeline to a recycling process anchored at the high energy end to supermassive black holes that are jetting or emitting Higgs spacetime. These emissions are presumably isotropic in time and space yielding a steady state universe on large scales. This diagram shows the process at a high level, but with important insights.

- The dipoles found at the event horizon of a black hole have duality with the mid-energy dipole in a Noether core. In each case, the orbital velocity of the point charge is field speed, @. N.B. the speed of a photon, c, approaches field speed in low energy spacetime aether. In this sense c has been an imprecise proxy for @.
- The long sought dark matter and dark energy correspond to point charges and the energy they carry on the interior of a black hole event horizon as well as on the interior of Noether cores, where they are shielded by superposition.
- Black holes emit Higgs Noether cores which are ultimately stealthy via superposition. The emission mechanism may be via periodic jets or direct emission through the event horizon.
- Extreme black holes, in particular supermassive black holes (SMBH) may form a solid core of point charges with no relative motion to each other. Such point charges are frozen at the highest possible energy, the Planck energy. By nature of the freeze, the Planck core has only one microstate, zero entropy, and zero temperature.

In the next posts we’ll look at the grand unification epoch and the inflationary epoch which occur in parallel.

*J Mark Morris : Boston : Massachusetts*