## Energy and Potential

In the point charge universe energy is the sum of the potential and kinetic energy of all point charges. Since there is no known beginning nor end to the universe in time nor space, we might examine the energy in a time bounded volume of absolute space. By choosing that volume large enough we expect to model the fine grained PE and KE statistics of the general distribution of point charges. This data could be aggregated to find energy averages for various celestial orbs, galaxies, clusters, or the universe as a whole.

To understand energy at it’s most fundamental level we first examine the action between every pair of point charges, including self-action. There are only three general cases, two positrinos, two electrinos, and an electrino-positrino pair. In this chapter we will examine the energy of various scenarious these point charges may encounter.

When talking about energy, we must also talk about potential. Work leverages potential to convert between kinetic and potential energy.

Positrino’s are a source of potential and electrinos are a sink of potential, so since the idea is that they are 50/50 the potential in the universe is overall balanced. Note that electrinos do not result in negative energy. Electrinos have negative potential.  Work can be done by negative potential or relative to negative potential.

This also ties in to the question of what does it mean to absorb or sink potential.  NPQG assumes that point charges don’t impact the Dirac potential spheres that they interact with. The sum of all potential in the universe is zero, but this is a deceptive way to think about it. Sure potential superimposes, but in any volume, the point charges inside are constantly producing positive and negative potential, not to mention the potential spheres that are flowing through.  Also, keep in mind that potential is different than potential energy.

NPQG does not model pair production and annihilation of point charges and instead posits immutability. However, what exactly is the reasoning for immutability? We have maximum curvature for the dipole. What about the linear electrino : positrino situation? Do they cross the same point? Cross over? Is it like a flat elliptical orbit? That all said, NPQG does eliminate pair production and annhilation at the standard model level by introducing assemblies and their reactions, and that is a good thing.