Cosmology is way off course due to the crisis in particle physics. However, it is simple to think our way out of this crisis. Check out this video for a quick overview of alternatives to the Big Bang and then I’ll show how we can perform ontological transformations and merge the best ideas from the various conceptualizations into a far more sensible cosmological framework.

Let’s review what science abstractly deduces about cosmology.

- Our observations of the eldest photons from farthest away show that those photons have lost energy, i.e. redshifted. (CMB)
- Spacetime inflates, expands, and contracts. (Einstein, Guth, et al)
- Matter can emerge from spacetime via pair production.
- Matter can return to spacetime via pair annhilation.

Imagine all energetic matter, including spacetime itself, as being based upon a substructure that implements the characteristics of spacetime. A substructure that implements spacetime would, of course, implement the characteristics of spacetime. If we consider standard matter particles to be based on the same substructure that implements spacetime then by definition standard matter would also inflate and expand as it dissipated energy. Furthermore, DeBroglie showed us that standard matter has a frequency and wavelength, similar to photons. Everything can dissipate energy, i.e. redshift (or gain energy, blueshift).

Now we are in a realm where all matter-energy is built upon chunks of spacetime substructure and everything including spacetime can gain energy, dissipate energy, and react to transmute and form other structures.

In this realm let’s redefine a “bang” as the exposure of high energy structures to an environment with less apparent energy. This happens all the time and all over the place as we can plainly observe. What happens? The high energy structures dissipate energy to other structures. The high energy structures react and transmute into different strucures. This process continues until some sort of equilibrium occurs.

Where do we find such processes? Galaxies are of course a huge source of such high energy events, from novae to quasars. But even a pair production event in deep spacetime qualifies.

Likewise there are processes which concentrate matter energy, such as gravitational attraction. This concentration reaches its local zenith inside black holes and ultimately inside the largest black holes, of which SMBH in galactic centers are an exemplar.

Energy is neither created nor destroyed, so we can think of the collection of all of these processes as a universe sized recycling system. High energy structures form, are exposed to a volume of space with lower energy-matter density, react and dissipate energy and expand and transmute, and yet also this is balanced by processes going the other way, increasing the density of matter-energy.

Stop here and ask why do we need a single inflationary big bang event, even one distributed throughout the whole universe? We don’t. A recycling process as I have described, distributed through time and space with no known beginning nor end will produce exactly what we observe.

Our scientists might observe the eldest most distant CMB photons and might correctly attribute their redshift to expansion. That expansion is only required to be a local phenomenon experienced by the photon itself and the local spacetime structures through which it traveled. We do not require the whole universe to be expanding outward, we only require local expansion. As long as the local expansion of spacetime structures is balanced by other recycling processes that concentrated energy into contracted structures then everything works out just fine. Therefore galaxies are not in general receding from each other. That idea is malarky.

Through this thought experiment we have no converged the main concepts of the Big Bang, inflation, expansion, steady state cosmology, cyclic universes and even the multiverse. They can all be unified by discarding the nonsense narratives and supporting nonsense sub-theories.

Operationally, the universe is simply a distributed recycling system of structures that change size with energy and which can react to transact energy or to transmute into different structures. Essentially the universe is more like chemistry than physics.

Each of the five ideas Paul reviewed as well as the Big Bang itself contains some elements of the truth. But they also each contain a lot of false narratives and erroneous supporting erroneous math. Here is a handy truth table.

Universe Characteristic | How is it implemented? |

spacetime | Point charges form structures termed Noether cores with three orbiting point charge dipoles |

standard matter | Various assemblies of Noether cores adorned with personality point charges. Photon : pro and anti Noether cores, planar, contra rotating coaxially on the line of travel Fermion : six point charges adorning a Noether core |

inflation, expansion, contraction | As a Noether core gains or dissipates energy its size changes due to the dynamical geometry of the point charge structure. |

expansion of the universe | The universe expands in place, not outward. Structure expansion and diffusion is balanced by structure contraction and concentration. |

*J Mark Morris : Boston : Massachusetts*