Orbital Dualities

Let’s curate a collection of amazing visual illustrations of the dualities of orbital systems at different scales. Commentary will be minimized except at 10-35. Please send suggestions for vibrant visualizations of duality at scale to

13.8B LY radius : CMB

cosmic microwave background (CMB)
Arctic anomaly: A map showing the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature as observed by ESA’s Planck satellite. While fluctuations in the CMB were expected, and were observed by Planck, an unforeseen anomaly is the cold spot (circled), which extends over a large patch of sky and has a much lower temperature than expected.
(Courtesy: ESA/Planck Collaboration)

30M LY : Galaxy

networks of galaxies that make up the universe
Credit : Nature
A typical galaxy cluster contains 50 to 1000 galaxies, and has a mass between 100 trillion and 1 quadrillion solar masses, stretching over a distance of 30 million light-years.

3K to 300K LY : Galaxy

Spiral galaxy NGC 1232

1 LY : Solar System

100M to 1B M : Earth-Moon

1 M

File:Sonnenblume Helianthus 2.JPG
reddit : provenance unknown

0.1 M


10-10 M : Electron Orbitals


10-14 to 10-15 M : Nucleon

Molecular structure

10-19 M : Quark

 Image credit: DOE’s Jefferson Lab

10-35 M : Immutable Point Charge Dipole

In nature, there are two cases where point charges may be adjacent.

  • The lower energy limit of 0 h-bar, 0 Hz, with nod to the cousin, the slightly separated dipole at 1 h-bar, 1 Hz.
  • The high energy limit at the Planck frequency, Fp, 1.8549×1043 Hz.

Non sequitur nota bene : in a dense collection of point charges, i.e., a maelstrom, let’s say in a supermassive black hole (and perhaps other high energy orbs?), the ideal behaviour of an Fp dipole may not be realized due to interactions with neighboring high energy point charges. This has a lot to do with solving some major open problems in physics related to entropy and information. This may be a good pedagogical opportunity to explain why the 2nd Law should be corrected to be an equality.

Get the picture?

J Mark Morris : Boston : Massachusetts

By J Mark Morris

I am imagining and reverse engineering a model of nature and sharing my journey via social media. Join me! I would love to have collaborators in this open effort. To support this research please donate: