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Physics

Spacetime Aether vs. “The Vacuum”

Circa Q4 2021 there have been several “vacuum” oriented physics outreach videos from the hosts of popular YouTube physics channels. These all seem to be coming in the same timeframe as Justin Khoury’s paper which I wrote about here Dr. Justin Khoury on Dark Matter Superfluidity.

When I think about aspects of GR/QM/LCDM era physics and cosmology I have trained my mind to always think from the point charge structures on up. What would energetic point charge based structures do? How would they work? How did these structures evolve? While there is a tremendous amount to be learned and understood about the point charge universe, at this point the architecture has emerged that links the point charges to the standard model.

Using these charts it is quite straightforward to visualize the interactions, structures, and mechanisms from the electrino and positrino up to the composition and layering of the standard model and the spacetime aether (aka dark matter aka vacuum😢). The emergence of patterns that in turn influence more patterns at ever larger scale is one of the amazingly beautiful behaviours of nature.

A vacuum is a space devoid of matter. The word is derived from the Latin adjective vacuus for “vacant” or “void”. Physicists often discuss ideal test results that would occur in a perfect vacuum, which they sometimes simply call “vacuum” or free space. They use the term partial vacuum to refer to an actual imperfect vacuum as one might have in a laboratory or in space.

Wikipedia

Please watch and listen to Dr. Matt, Dr. Paul, and Dr. Sabine as they cover the state of the art narrative understanding and debate on these subjects. Then come back as I show the basis of nature in the point charge era and how it explains everything, solves confusion and concerns, and raises new opportunities and questions. Along the way, we need to jettison incrrect uses of the term “vacuum” and ideas that are moot in the point charge era.

Paul discusses the physicists understanding about vacuum meta-stability and fears that the “vacuum” could find a new and different ground state, which would spread out at the speed of light and reconfigure all structures in its path. The problem here is that physicists do not understand Noether cores and the concepts of apparent vs. shielded energy. Still Paul is entertaining as always, expecially that smile when he speaks of our possible obliteration.

In this video Matt delivers basically the same messages as Paul in the preceding video, also with good humor. The graphics are much better and the explanation somewhat more technical. Matt explains, that unlike all other fields, the Higgs field minimum energy state is NOT zero. The concern of false vacuum is that the Higgs field may have a different and lower minimum value and the universe could crash to that level.

Not to worry. Nothing could be farther from the truth. First of all, it’s a spacetime aether of point charge structures, not a pure field as physicists conveniently conceive. Second, the shielded dipoles in aether particles probably contain quite a bit of energy! Third, apparently the universe is permeated by spacetime aether and new aether is generated dynamically as the detritus of all redshifting Noether cores.

I made this comment on the YouTube video : Dr. Sabine, I recommend you read only the text (not the formulas) of Khoury’s lecture notes on Arxiv. I know you research superfluids as does Khoury. He’s tied it to MOND, which if you take a slight leap means that what has been called dark matter is really the superfluid of spacetime. So there is an aether. And that aether presents a very low energy with a gradient just like Dr. Einstein suggests geometrically with no implementation. Well, now you know that spacetime is implemented by a very lightly interacting, gravity conducting, BEC of some kind of particle.

This is what I have been trying to communcate to Sabine since mid 2018 : Due to false priors, physicists incorrectly discarded point charges. They can be rehabilitated. Call the two flavors of point charge the electrino and the positrino at |e/6|. Grant point charges immutability (root cause unknown). Now we can easily see that orbiting dipoles will form at incredibly high energy. Next a little imagination leads us to successive lower energy dipole capture of a smaller higher energy dipole to make a 3D gyroscopic flywheel energy storage device that I call the Noether engine core.

Guess what? Each Noether core has three dipole frequencies anywhere on the scale to Planck. Three orbital planes and their orientations to each other. The weak charge layer satellite point charges orbit at a radius many orders of magnitude larger. There is so much more to talk about, especially the shielded energy in the spacetime aether (and most standard matter particles) that physicists only have vague hints at today. See New Physics in Pictures.

Noether cores form in extremely high energy events and are extremely small at that energy scale. Noether cores are the implementation for Einstein’s general relativity and stretchy-curvy spacetime. Therefore it should be clear that as a Noether core dissipates energy via gradual redshift or via discrete quantum transactions in units of h-bar j-s. that the Noether core radius will increase and the Noether core structure will expand. Yet you must disabuse yourself of “Universe expansion” and replace it with the concept of individual Noether cores expanding as they dissipate energy.

Once you make the mental transition to the expansion mechanism it is fairly straightforward to understand that point charges are in a constant state of recycling in various energy-reaction paths where they may increase or decrease in energy. Super high energy events with concentrated matter-energy churn out new high energy Noether cores, many of which eventually redshift and decay into the sea of spacetime aether. Where do these high energy events occur? In galaxies. Therefore expansion is really local to Noether cores, but emanates from galaxies which spread Noether cores locally in their galaxy and cluster. At the same time, aether particles are used in reactions to make the more commonly observed standard matter particles and some of those follow a path back to another high energy event.

For those readers who may be new to the point charge universe, I understand what you have been going through in your attempts to understand physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. All the patterns you are seeing and the relationships and trying to piece them all together. I was there too, and still am in many respects. Fortunately, for myself, I have found that modeling with Planck scale electrino and positrino immutable point charges at |e/6| is extremely promising. I think these two types of energy carrying point charge, in ample abundance, form all the structures we perceive, including spacetime.

It is best to focus at the lowest level point charges and emergent structures and create knowledge and understanding from there. For example, considering the Emily Noether core; how can that be proved to be rather precisly described by the mathematics of three orbiting point charge dipoles with different orbital planes and orientations depending on velocity through the aether which is composed of particles with the same Noether cores? It’s kind of mind blowing until it makes absolute sense, then it is mundane. At that point, you can just let gravitational perturbations slide on by. Study how the Noether cores in the chart are paired with a personality layer to make the familiar standard matter particles.

Here are more videos about the vacuum concept, vacuum energy, vacuum catastrophe, vacuum decay and etc. These were wonderful videos in their time made by excellent creators and explainers. I watched each of these over and over with the goal of separating the ground truth of the physical observations from the modelling mathematics and then mostly from the physicist’s often faulty interpretations.

With the advent of the point charge era of physics, the anachronisms in the videos, the things that were confused before and are now clear and simplified, make these videos obsolete, except for historical and conceptual purposes. Hopefully these and other creators will get on board and explain the point charge era understanding of nature, as well as the history of how these concepts evolved through confused times as in the allegory of the cave. Plus, some of these are rather fascinating to go back and watch for entertainment with the point charge era knowledge and understanding. Folks got worked up about some really simple mechanisms.

The most successful theory in all of physics is, arguably, quantum field theory. It has made the most precise predictions in all of science. And it has also made the worst. There’s a massive disagreement between the theoretical and the measured values of the energy of the vacuum. We call this theoretical fail the vacuum catastrophe.

The quantum vacuum is a seething ocean of activity. Virtual particles appear and vanish from nowhere, in seeming violation of our intuitions about the conservation of mass and energy. We saw in our recent episode that we can thank the Heisenberg uncertainty principle for this bizarre behavior. It tells us that there’s a quantum fuzziness in the amount of energy contained at every point in space; a non-zero zero-point energy in the quantum fields that can briefly manifest as particles. This suggests that space itself contains energy. But how much energy? Quantum field theory predicts that the energy of the vacuum should be up to 120 orders of magnitude greater than the measured value. It’s one of the greatest unsolved problems in physics.

PBS Space Time

I find it amusing that physicists are so conflicted on the vacuum. They often speak from one side of their mouth as if the vacuum is truly empty, a nothingness. From the other side of their mouth they speak of virtual particles and pair production and energy inherent in the vacuum. Why isn’t that dichotomy a big enough clue for physicists to begin questioning their priors? Alas, they truly believe in magic happening in the quantum vacuum and have constructed theoretical mechanisms to cling on to this warped view.

Regarding the discussion of vaccum energy and supersymmetry and fine tuning, it appears to me that the concept of energy shielding must apply to spacetime aether particles similarly to other standard matter particles. In other words, a generation I spacetime aether particle structure would contain shielded high energy dipoles in each Noether core. I surmise that physicists pick up vestiges of this mechanism in their theories and observations, thus leading the the concepts of balance of zero point energy due to cancelling. The good news is that immutable point charges provide a natural solution to these conundrums.


Matt notes that Quantum Field Theory (QFT) predicts that space itself may contain a higher density of energy than the nucleus of an atom. According to Matt, this results from the “non-zero zero point energies of the quantum fields that fill our universe.” QFT is off by 10120 on this estimate versus observations. I’m not sure how to reconcile this difference – because physicists don’t yet understand shielded energy and also because I don’t know if shielded energy might play an unwitting role in this particular QFT estimate.


This Veritasium video starts with the confusing concept of “empty space that is not empty.” Ugh! It’s really unfortunate that physicists use terminology like ‘vacuum’ or ’empty space’ to describe the spacetime aether which is an emergent, and relatively complex structure made of point charges.

The professor who generated the visualization says that the “empty space which is not empty” is also unstable, such that any perturbation can cause it to generate particles that may or may not fully materialize. Consider that spacetime aether is essentially a huge ocean of neutral point charge structures. I’m currently thinking each aether “particle” may be a 12 electrino, 12 positrino structure that is composed of four low apparent energy Noether cores at 3 : 3 that arrange themselves somewhat like the Helium nucleus of 4 nucleons.

Nature loves to repeat itself at different scales. At some point we will be able to make representations as 3D animations that track every point charge in the structure. I have provided a 2D artistic imagination of the composition of the aether. An important factor is that aether particles are extremely tiny, far less than the 1 fm scale of the Helium nucleus and surround standard matter particles as if they were in an ocean of aether. The aether particles are always at the ready to absorb a drop of energy and pair produce photons, neutrinos, quarks, electrons, and their anti-particles.



Matt says :

  • Zero point energy means zero kinetic energy.
  • Zero Kelvin means no motion at all in the test particle.
  • Measuring zero Kelvin would imply knowledge of both the position and momentum of the particle.
  • This is impossible according to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

I imagine only one structure type where the point charges have zero relative motion, and that would be in a Planck core of a sufficiently dense and energetic black hole. To be clear, the point charges would have zero relative velocity, but the whole core may rotate, which yields an interesting corner case for thought experiment. That is a very different end of the energy spectrum than apparent in spacetime aether. Note however, that the core may be considered as solid spacetime aether, and it has a calculated energy density that matches what is considered to be an erroneous QFT calculation that yields 10112. This particular QFT coincidence may turn out to be nothing.

Matt goes on to give an excellent description of QFT. I think I will extract and paraphrase his script for this section and rewrite it for the point charge universe!

Our modern understanding of the quantum nature of space is described by quantum field theory. In short: space itself is comprised of fundamental quantum fields, one for each elementary particle. Those fields oscillate – vibrate with different energies – and those oscillations are the electrons, quarks, neutrinos, photons, gluons, etc. that comprise the stuff of our universe.

These fields are quantum fields, which means their oscillations can only be excited in quantized chunks – integer multiples of some baseline energy. In each quantum state – so each set of particle properties – there’s a ladder of energy levels, a bit like electron orbitals in an atom. Each new rung of the ladder represents the existence of one additional particle in that quantum state. In fact the math of quantum field theory is all about going up and down this particle ladder using so-called creation and annihilation operators.

PBS Space Time – The Nature of Nothing

NPQG refactoring :

  • Our modern theory of the nature of spacetime aether is described within the emerging body of work termed Neoclassical Physics and Quantum Gravity, NPQG.
  • Particle structures are described by an architectural template for point charge structures that is inherited in whole or part by all particles in the standard model.
  • Stable point charge structures are formed in orbital layers, with the three smallest, densest, and highest energy orbital layers at very small orbital radii, far below what is observable in experiment as of 2021. We call this three dipole structure a Noether core.
  • The Noether core is the structure that accounts for many types of conservation, including transfers of energy quanta.
  • Fermions have a weak personality layer that consists of a collection of six point charges. These charges orbit at a radius orders of magnitude outside the Noether core.
  • Each particle, which is a structure made from moving point charges, emits oscillating fields that are defined in Quantum Field Theory, QFT.
  • The concepts of pair production, virtual particles, transmutations, annihilation and creation operators, and ladders will need to be replaced with theoretical knowledge of the provenance of each and every point charge in a reaction or decay.
  • QFT as a discipline will need significant revitalization to dovetail with this new knowledge of point charge based structures as field generators. This new knowledge is likey to result in a restructuring of the theory that is both more general, simpler, and has far greater closure over fundamental behaviour. (i.e., not a patchwork).

The bottom of this energy ladder corresponds to these quantum oscillators having no energy, which means there are no particles in the given quantum state. We call this the vacuum state of the field. Inside a perfect vacuum, all of the fields at all locations should be in the vacuum state: exactly zero energy at all times. But here we run up against the pesky Heisenberg uncertainty principle once again. We saw that it’s impossible to simultaneously fix position and momentum. It’s also impossible to simultaneously perfectly define time and energy. The more tightly we try to define the time window for the behavior of a quantum oscillator, the less certain we can be of its energy state in that time window. On extremely short timescales, a quantum field exists as a blur of many energy states. In a vacuum, the most likely state in that blur is the zero-energy vacuum state. But sometimes the field finds itself with enough energy to create a particle, seemingly out of nothing.

PBS Space Time – The Nature of Nothing

NPQG refactoring :

  • First we replace all uses of ‘vacuum‘ with ‘spacetime aether‘.
  • It is just plain wrong physics to think that the bottom of the energy ladder in the spacetime aether has no energy.
    • Not only does it have apparent energy in deep space, with 2.7K temperature,
    • Spacetime aether conducts “mass” or apparent energy to and from all of the universe which may be infinite as far as we know.
    • Apparent energy (aka mass) is the pulsing A/C energy from the interaction with neighboring particles on all point charges in causal contact universe.
      • This is an important area for the Lagrangian & Hamiltonian. The kinetic and potential energy interaction between point charges in all conditions.
        • Clearly kinetic and potential energy will be continuously exchanged by direct field interaction and cascade outwards through the aether and all other structures.
        • Two important concepts are permittivity and permeability and how to derive them from electromagnetic field strength at each point in the void.
        • The void is currently conceived as having no properties other than providing 3D space.
        • Therefore permittivity and permeability would not be characteristics of the void proper, but are related to the speed of electromagnetic field transmission via truly empty space (the 3D void) in the presence of other electromagnetic fields.
      • What are the options?
        • Assume pure space is defined to interact only as a vessel.
          • It does not interact with fields or point charges except as a conduit or vessel.
        • How do vector components of the electromagnetic fields interact?
          • Is this already in Maxwells’ equations with vector math to determine the net electromagnetic fields at each point in Newtonian space and time?
          • What about relativistic space and time?
        • To what extent do Maxwell’s equations depend on spacetime aether, if at all?
          • Well we know e0 and u0, so for sure they will need to be refactored, at least in what they describe.
        • Is there a more precise formulation at the new base level of point charges?
          • It seems to me there must be.
        • So we need to intuit how point charge fields interact in the ideal situation of pure space with no spacetime aether present.
        • Energy shielding has revealed itself as a requirement.
          • Shielding explains
            • fermion generations
            • neutrino oscillation
            • tired photons on the lifecycle to spacetime aether.
            • tired neutrinos on the lifecycle to spacetime aether.
            • black hole behaviour
            • might correlate with that weird QFT 10112???
            • might correlate with super-symmetry???
        • A point charge or its field must somehow be able to shield the field of another point charge.
        • What do we mean by shield?
          • Is it an all or nothing shield?
          • Is it a gradient shield?
          • What is the implementation of shielding?
        • We know that electromagnetic theory predicts the exact shape of the electromagnetic wave from a point charge.
        • This is not an oscillating wave. It is simply the electromagnetic field emitted at each moment in time which is spreading outward.
        • We have to be very careful here regarding the implementation of electromagnetic field transmission from point charges via truly empty void space.
        • It is a slippery slope to imagine that the fields actually interact with each other in the absence of a point charge to act upon. That seems to be a rabbit hole that leads to turtles all the way down. I hope we can avoid that!
        • So what are the choices? What is the simplest?
          • We have to decide if the speed of the point charge electromagnetic field is influenced by the presence of fields from itself or other point charges.
          • If yes, then carefully just figure out how it works, without looking too deeply for now – turtle zone.
          • We model the speed paced by the concepts of permittivity and permeability.
          • And we could figure out some formula based upon the incident electromagnetic field vectors.
          • If we were to go this route, perhaps a smart idea would be to calculate each point in space and time the same way we would as if there was a point charge at that coordinate.
          • We could go the route where the electromagnetic field is not impeded by anything. That seems like we would have a breakdown in the theory with some signals running ahead of others that go via point charge and all hell would break loose. Plus what is the speed anyway? c? why? Let’s park that idea for now.
          • A smart idea would be to calculate each point in space and time the same way we would as if there was a virtual point charge at that coordinate.

And zoom out from thought process.

Even more back to back jackpots | Gaming Guru | atlanticcityweekly.com

When you hit an idea like that, just pop off of all the subroutines and thread stacks because you just hit the LOTTO 777 reward. This is probably all entirely obvious to those who understand nature. I suppose my role is to take the slow, lonely, deliberate, and persistent path. I would have thought these concepts would have gone viral by now. While traffic is exponential, there has yet to be any sign of recognition that the new kid on the block is the immutable point charge formulation of nature as defined by open source framework NPQG.

First, there is the meta irony of NPQG reaching the stage of defining “virtual point charges” because I’ve always thought of some of the vague thoughts of QM/QFT/QCD to be silly, magical, and woo-ish when it comes to virtual particles. Maybe the next level below NPQG will clarify this to a greater degree! Ha ha, that would be fun 😀.

Second, the answer is “of course” this is the right direction because by necessity it must be the true if a point charge happened to be at that point in absolute space and time. My intuition tells me this is a good idea. I have no idea how it is implemented at this point. I could be absolutely wrong and that’s ok. Trial and error.

This line of logic seems to indicate that there are no field interactions in the absence of the actee which is acted upon, i.e., the point charge. I could sure use some professionals in logic and argument area of philosophy to help tighten all this logic up! This begs the question of local permittivity and permeability and are those vectors themselves? Might point charges behave such that the net electromagnetic field may not exceed a maximum? This limit would then define the closest approach of any two point charges. I calculate Lp/2 is the closest approach, but please check my numbers.

Perhaps the point charges need some special behaviour that hasn’t been intuited yet. I’m certain they must be immutable, but I don’t know that mechanism either. Shielding and immutability could very well be linked. Also in this domain is asymptotic safety from Dr. Frank Wilczek, et al. Let’s start by looking at Maxwell’s Equations in the context of point charges.

Perhaps shielding and immutability are natural implication of Maxwell’s equations or a slightly modified Maxwell’s equations and I haven’t understood it yet.

  • The div and curl operators are natural for immutable point charges,
  • with an immutability sphere of radius R near the Planck length,
  • and the point charge behaves as if the charge radiates from the center of that spherical core.
  • If you modeled it that way, I would not expect electric or magnetic fields to pass through the immutable core.
  • Those fields are all direct hits and cause action on the immutable core which behaves as if the charge is at the center.
  • Is it reasonable that an immutable point charge should be modeled as a sphere where external fields go in, but don’t pass through? I don’t know.
  • In terms of outbound fields and action upon the charge, it still behaves as a point charge beyond the surface of the sphere.

There is an interesting duality between a single immutable point charge and a black hole Planck core that is tightly packed immutable point charges.

Perhaps the point charges need some special behaviour that hasn’t been intuited yet. I’m certain they must be immutable, but I don’t know that mechanism either. Shielding and immutability could very well be linked. Also in this domain is asymptotic safety from Dr. Frank Wilczek, et al. This all begs for more thinking and a longer exposition. One idea is that any field that enters a point charge must stay in the point charge and perform action. If that is the case then with a fixed radius, every point charge is essentially casting a shadow for all fields that are absorbed. That is a fun idea to ponder!

We call these virtual particles, and they seem to be the machinery under the hood of all particle interactions in the universe, as described by QFT which describes the electromagnetic force as the exchange of virtual photons between charged particles. Virtual particles are the links governing all particle interactions in the famous Feynman diagrams. But to properly calculate an interaction of real particles, every imaginable behavior of the connecting virtual particles must be accounted for. This includes seemingly impossible behavior. For example, in QFT virtual particles can have any mass and any speed, including speeds faster than light, and can even travel backwards in time. We covered that little gem of weirdness in this episode.

PBS Space Time – The Nature of Nothing

This whirling dervish of a panic of Feynman diagrams is far easier to deal in the point charge universe. With NPQG we can model the provenance of each point charge including monte carlo analysis under various spacetime aether conditions.

The ambiguous “realness” of virtual particles seems to grant them some surreal freedoms. But there are restrictions; for example quantum conservation laws need to be obeyed, so most virtual particles are created in particle-antiparticle pairs. But the ultimate price is that virtual particles can exist only for the instant allowed by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. And the higher the energy of the particle the less time it can exist. This restriction defines the range of the fundamental forces. For example, the massless photon can have the tiniest of energies, and so virtual photons can exist for any amount of time; long enough to carry the electromagnetic force to any distance. On the other hand, it always takes a baseline chunk of energy to create the gluon – the carrier of the strong nuclear force – because gluons have mass. That means there’s a limit to how long virtual gluons can exist and travel, which in turn makes the strong nuclear force a very short-range force.

PBS Space Time – The Nature of Nothing

It is impossible to respond directly to this excerpt because reality is so different than what is conceived in this episode. It seems to me that if we were to limit the PBS Space Time crew to blue and red gumballs i.e., electrinos and positrinos at minus and plus |e/6| charge that they are bright enough to start understanding how nature works. That’s it. That’s really it. Structures form. Stuff happens. It’s eat or be eaten in a primitive emergent form. All the lesser energy but diverse personality charges must couple to the Noether cores at some point. Electrons, quarks, neutrinos, and their anti-particles, plus photons and the W and Z bosons, ending up bathed in a low apparent energy (2.7K) Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of the detritus of tired photons and tired neutrinos. I imagine these tired Noether cores forming some Helium like structure of pro and anti Noether cores. Perhaps that is what theorists might mean by a graviton or a Higgs particle. These are all related and this level of nature will need to be sorted out by the physicists.

Here is a long chunk of the episode script which goes on about virtual particles and the vacuum. With your learning of NPQG, can you beging to visualize how the point charge structures that make the universe are creating these observed effects?

It can be argued that virtual particles are just a mathematical tool to describe the behavior of a dynamic vacuum; and that no such particles actually exist. Or that they are only the “quantum possibilities of particles”, which somehow govern the interactions of real particles without themselves being burdened with reality. Real or not, the calculations of QFT, which hinge entirely on these particles, are stunningly accurate. But how do we verify the existence of these elusive critters? They live in the interval between measurements of real particles; by definition they can only exist when we aren’t watching. But they nonetheless leave their ghostly mark on the universe.

The first hint of the existence of virtual particles came in 1947, when Willis Lamb and Robert Retherford noticed a tiny energy difference in the the two electron orbitals that comprise the second energy level of the hydrogen atom. According to the best existing theory of the time, those orbitals should have had exactly the same energy. The slight difference – now called the Lamb shift – inspired theorists to dig deeper. They didn’t take long; in the same year that the Lamb shift was first observed, German physicist Hans Bethe successfully explained it in terms of a fluctuating vacuum energy. Virtual particle-antiparticle pairs in the space between these orbitals and the nucleus align themselves with the electric field. This partially shields the orbiting electrons from the positive charge in the nucleus, with the amount of shielding being slightly different between these orbits. The calculation of the size of the Lamb shift is now one of the most accurate predictions in all of physics.

Another way to hunt for virtual particles is through their bulk effect on the vacuum. See, if quantum fields are abuzz with particles popping into and out of existence, then the so-called zero-point energy of those fields should not be zero. Completely empty space should contain some real energy – it should have vacuum energy. In 1948 the Dutch physicist Hendrick Casimir came up with a brilliant scheme to detect this. He imagined two conducting plates brought so close together that only certain virtual photons can exist between the plates; in the same way that an organ pipe or guitar string of a particular length only resonates with waves of certain frequencies. Any non-resonant virtual photon would be excluded, reducing the vacuum energy in that region. However, on the outer surface of the plates all frequencies of virtual photon are allowed. The higher vacuum energy outside compared to inside the plates should result in a pressure differential that pushes the plates together.

The Casimir effect was only successfully measured in 1996 by Steven Lamoreaux at the University of Washington, based on the initial ideas of his student Dev Sen. When separated by less than a micrometer, conducting surfaces were drawn together by a force that matched the predictions of quantum field theory. While there are potentially other explanations for the observed force, this is taken as strong evidence that vacuum energy is real.

Neither the Casimir effect nor the Lamb shift allow measurement of the absolute strength of vacuum energy; they just measure its relative effect inside versus outside Casimir plates, or between electrons in neighboring orbits. So how much vacuum energy is there? There are two main ways to estimate this: one is through an observation, and the other is theoretical. The observation is the accelerating expansion of the universe. Dark energy itself may be vacuum energy. If so, then the amount of vacuum energy needed to produce the observed acceleration is tiny – around one-hundred-millionth of an erg per cubic centimeter. The theoretical calculation of the strength of the vacuum energy is a little higher than that. In fact it’s 120 orders of magnitude higher. This wild discrepancy between theory and observation is considered by some to be one of the greatest unsolved mysteries in physics.

PBS Space Time – The Nature of Nothing

The science begins at 4:45 of this Fab Four Sixty Symbols video.

  • The cosmological constant problem is characterized at the hardest most difficult problem in physics as of 2011.
  • One error is the misunderstanding of the concept of expansion.
    • Physicists have not yet realized that spacetime aether particles exist and that like everything else, they will shed energy when given the opportunity.
    • Spacetime aether particles are formed by Noether cores that present a very small amount of apparent energy.
    • All Noether core based particles will redshift over time and as they lose apparent energy, the cores expand.
    • The standard matter-energy particles in galaxies energize the local aether.
    • In essence, spacetime aether is prevalent enough that the lowest apparent energy of aether corresponds to a temperature of approximately 2.7K.
    • With this new understanding, we must discard the concept of “universe expansion” and instead think of galaxy local spacetime aether expansion.
    • What balances galaxy local spacetime aether expansion?
      • One answer is that pressure from other galaxies and their local expansion establishes the general lower bound of low apparent energy at 2.7 Kelvin.
      • The second factor is the standard matter that precipites out of the aether through mechanisms such as pair production.
    • N.B. This is all dealing with ‘apparent energy’ of the aether. There is good reason to think that, like all multi-dipole Noether core based particles, there are inner dipoles at higher frequency that carry energy which is largely shielded and does not present as mass.
  • A second error is the interpretation of accelerated expansion of the universe. So far, I have several ideas as to what may really be happening, but am not confident in those mechanisms. The challenge is in unwinding the prior erroneous narrative, getting down to actual observations, and then looking for new mechanisms in the point charge universe.
  • @6:00 : “Where does vacuum energy come from?” First of all, we need to stop using the term “vacuum” when technically we should be saying “spacetime aether.” The term vacuum suggests a nothingness, but physicists are quite willing to explain that the nothingness of a their vacuum presents energy and creates particles. The idea for active nothingness is confusing to everyone.
  • @7:00 : Physicists further confused the subject with the concept of “virtual particles.”. This is a concept that should be eliminated in favor of a more technically accurate description based on point charge behaviour.

This video starts with the Big Bang and expansion of the universe, concepts which don’t occur in the point charge universe. My latest thinking on the phases of inflation vs. expansion is to wonder if inflation corresponds to the super high energy v>>c portion of the dipole mechanism where the point charge is impacted by its own field. It sort of makes sense, because there would be a peak v>>c where the particle would encounter its own field at exactly 1/2 orbit. That seems like a stable point, where the point charges velocity in a dipole would not want to exceed that energy.

This video goes on to mention a number of topics where physicists have confused narratives : acceleration of expansion, fields, quantum fluctuations, CMB anisotropy, and so on. Like most Veritasium episodes, it is at a fairly high level and serves as a vague introduction to the topic.


I haven’t watched the ‘Answers with Joe’ channel much and I see why. Long, content free intros, which are designed to amuse, often annoy me. After the 2:00 minute mark Joe gets down to business. He discusses the concept of vacuum decay where the Higgs field would collapse to a lower energy state in some bubble and that that bubble would expand outward at the speed of light as all other particles dropped to this lower energy state according to the third law of thermodynamics. Joe calls this the bubble of doom that destroys everything.

Yikes, what is scarier, physicists imagination or physicists lack of imagination? I kind of think that lack of physicists imagination is more scary. The bubble of doom idea of vacuum decay is clearly bogus. Physicists don’t even yet understand the concepts of the point charge universe, much less the shielded high energy in all Noether cores. Suffice it to say, that shielded high energy would likely play a role in any aether decays. Here’s a Kurzgesagt video covering the same topic as Joe, but with better illustrations and explanation in shorter time.

The idea of vacuum decay is sort of similar to Dr. Frank Wilczek’s vague concern of an ice-9 type reaction, which he thankfully generally dismisses. Translated into point charge lingo, it is the idea that there might be some reaction which would open up Noether cores like can openers and release all the energy in an uncontrollable cascade, or perhaps even something more mundane a runaway reaction that opened up particles easily and transmuted all particle types to some other atypical particle structure, like turning everything into Vonnegut’s ice-9.

Thankfully we can put all these fears on the back burner until physicists get on board with point charges, discard their old narratives, and start thinking through the NPQG era of physics. I suspect they may find that runaway universe wide or galaxy wide reactions are unlikely. That all said, it is somewhat disconcerting to consider that standard matter particles including spacetime aether contain orders of magnitude more shielded energy than apparent energy. Ideally we will be able to harness that knowledge for positive purposes and avoid or mitigate ways to accidentially or maliciously release shielded energy destructively on a large scale.

J Mark Morris : San Diego : California

By J Mark Morris

I am imagining and reverse engineering a model of nature and sharing my journey via social media. Join me! I would love to have collaborators in this open effort. To support this research please donate: https://www.paypal.me/johnmarkmorris

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