What is mass? Did you know that physicists do not have a good answer? Did you know that physicists do not know if mass is fundamental or emergent? That they cannot calculate the mass of a particle? The field of physics has been stuck on these and other concepts for quite a long time. It also the case that physicists have made a bit of a mess of the terminology and mathematics around the concept of mass.
It turns out that mass is an emergent phenomenon largely related to the orientation of the orbital plans in the Noether core in a gravitational field of spacetime aether or while accelerating through spacetime aether. The configuration of the Noether core dipole energies and orbital planes is the same in these two cases and that is why the Equivalence Principle holds even though the situations are quite different. Einstein sort of pulled a rabbit out of the hat with the Energy-Momentum equation which is essentially the Equivalence Principle in action.
Let’s back up and refresh ourselves that some form of the Noether engine appears to be re-used in all standard model structures as well as the particles of spacetime aether which generally have very low relative energy to the matter-energy structures that are flying about. This makes it evident why the Noether engine is so influential.
The Noether engine is essentially responsible for the strong force in all its forms. Who knows what kind of a dance the dipoles of the three Noether engines in a proton or neutron are doing? QCD does! The theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics. We call the dipoles gluons in this case. Still the conceptual groupings of the patchwork of theories help us understand the geometry. Understanding these geometries will be valuable input for closed form mathematical solutions as well as simulations.
Perhaps this gets down to what has been so challenging for physicists to realize. Einstein is not best undertstood by starting at the grand scales of the cosmos and black holes and singularities and lensing and even the precession of Mercury around the Sun. Einstein is best understood based upon the discrete implementation of positive and negative |e/6| point charges orbiting one another. That basic dipole chasing its tail is the first sign of structure emerging from the highest energy, zero entropy, state. No doubt relativistic high energy dipoles, orbiting slowly in such a contracted radius are emitted in many reactions. In one form we know these electrino:positrino dipoles as the tau neutrino.
The beauty of nature is that dipoles of lower energy and higher radius will capture dipoles of higher energy with smaller radius. Once point charges and energy spread out, and apparently because the universe has 3D space as a foundation, nature seems to like to dedicate quite a lot of spatial volume to particles of standard matter and spacetime aether that are made of generation III Noether energy cores. Note that I worded that carefully, because if we are instead accounting for point charges accumulation by concentation in structures, I suspect that we might be quite surprised by the concentrations of point charges at extremely small scales.
On top of all that, these dipoles click off energy in terms of angular momentum in h-bar j-s. So there you go. GR and QM are unified.
Once the point charge era physics is sorted out to the simplest possible explanations of nature, researchers and entrepreneurs will develop precise simulation models which track point charge by point charge via (perhaps) monte-carlo simulation on key reaction points. Essentially we need to build up some immense library that we can use to train artificial intelligence that can help us understand the individual electrinos and positrinos as they fly through each reaction. What is their exact path? Once you understand why the different reactions happen by tracking every electrino and positrino then we will begin to see how to influence and control the reaction. By the way, it is not lost on me that our current era Ai could help us solve what is essentially a differential equation.
These simulation models do not on the surface appear to be difficult at the highest energies or for that matter, any energy. There may be a simplifying model for spacetime aether for instance. Even at the scale of the reactions that make the largest atom (the largest atom has fewer than 10,000 point charges) the number of objects to track is quite reasonable. However, there will also be situations where the challenge involves tracking each individual particle in the spacetime aether as well as the dynamical and fluctuating virtual permittivity and permeability of space. I say virtual, because it seems to me that void space itself does not impose any limits on electromagnetic fields but rather that the point charges can be modeled as if there is a permittivity and permeabilty in the aether.
My current inclination is that the closest approach of point charges is determined by the point charges themselves and their actions on each other.
I am not closed minded to the idea that space itself could impose limits on permittivity and permeability but I have not visualized any implementation mechanism, so I am discinclined to favor that idea.
I admit that I think the model is more natural if space is conceived of as a three dimensional void and there is an absolute time that is forward moving only. It seems that absolute 3D space and absolute time, each with no known beginning or end are the fundamental background of our universe. We happen to find that as far as we can observe the space and time background is populated by a large scale parameter of point charge density as well as a second large scale parameter of the average energy per point charge, including both kinetic and electromagnetic forms.
J Mark Morris : Boston : Massachusetts
p.s., Here is Alexander Unzicker at his best, pointing out the travesties of physics.