The mass of a point particle is Planck’s constant **h** J⋅s divided by the speed of electromagnetic field propagation squared. This is logical because it is the Planck mass divided by the Planck frequency that corresponds to the mass increments. Each Planck’s constant **h** J⋅s represents one full rotation of a point particle in a tau dipole.

Each point charge senses the direction of the electric field to be from where its partner was when it emitted the electric field along the chord of the planar orbit, labeled **tau** in this figure.

N.B. Reality is continuous for length, energy, and time. The tau dipole implements quantization of these dimensions. The one-half Planck’s constant **h** J⋅s uncertainty represents the tipping point where reality is mapped to the quantum dipole. Now we know what we need to do to measure finer than one-half Planck’s constant **h** J⋅s. We also realize the true implementation of quantum mechanics uncertainty.

Besides being a battery, variable clock, stretchy ruler, and all its other functions, the tau dipole is a memory and an add/subtract accumulator with upper and lower bounds. This is all implemented with two point charges! Can you imagine the computational and memory density!? Each dipole implements a 143 bit counter for energy! This will far surpass ‘quantum computing’ in the future.

The next steps are to learn how all the standard equations are implemented by the point charge dipole. We can also gain insight from the Planck units which are a partial set of high and low operational limits on the dipole. We can complete the set of bounds now and organize them.

We can modify the standard equations to improve their model of the dipole behavior. Mainly it appears we need to find the permittivity and permeability of any point in space as a function of electromagnetic field strength. There are also point charge immutability factors.

If a rotating point charge dipole is left undisturbed it will never decay. Undisturbed means in a truly void space it would spin forever at the conserved energy level. This shows that the second law of thermodynamics is incorrect. The energy of a stable point charge dipole is an integer number of Planck’s constant **h** J⋅s plus or minus a real component less than one-half Planck’s constant **h** J⋅s.

This is a new law of nature that applies to fermion generations. It appears that all Generation I fermions have ‘shells’ consisting of three orthogonal point charge dipoles. Each dipole contains the payload in the center in one of three spatial dimensions. It also appears that the less energetic dipoles shield the mass-energy of the inner dipoles.

The path forward looks straightforward. Everything will reveal itself. It’s very simple actually. The universe is a void 3D Euclidean space with energetic immutable point charges swirling around forming and recycling structure.

I may have gained insight into the Koide formula. It appears to be related to the field couplings of three orthogonal dipoles. The sum of pairwise couplings divided by the sum of each three way coupling. It is as if the electron, muon, and tau are all present. How can that be? Putting thinking cap on.

Are these the masses of three dipoles in an electron shell and the outer dipole shields the energy of at least the next smaller dipole? **Wow**. Here is 3 electrino, 3 positrino electron shell, with the muon and tau built-in. Who knew? Abundant energy?

The Koide formula for the electron, muon, tau, and the 3 generations of neutrinos appears to describes three rotating point charge dipoles at different radii. That is how nature makes a basic containment shell. For a neutrino the dipoles are not tightly coupled enough to shield the more energetic interior dipoles. In an electron, each spherical dipole shell (aka Euclidean world line) shields the mass energy of the interior dipoles(s).

Fields are described by a vector magnitude at each point of action. It doesn’t matter where the emitting point charge IS at the moment of action. It matters where the field emitting charge WAS when it emitted the field that arrives at the point of action.

I haven’t mapped this behaviour to information yet. Each dipole is similar to a 143 bit accumulator. Each Planck’s constant **h** J⋅s increment causes a change in radius of the dipole. Is an Planck’s constant **h** J⋅s considered one bit of information? The dipole is essentially a battery that stores its frequency * Planck’s constant **h** J⋅s energy.

I’m working on the equations for the dipole. It appears that it is a control system with tipping points corresponding to Planck’s constant **h** J⋅s * (n + 0.5). So as work is done to energize the system, each incremental Planck’s constant **h** J⋅s causes a tension that guides the charges to the next smaller radius.

We have only learned the mass of the muon by studying high energy reactions that cause the electron dipole to decay. The muon has a two dipole shell. It would be stable in a high energy environment that could provide the third dimension of containment.

Likewise, we have only learned the mass of the tau by studying high energy reactions that cause both the electron and muon dipoles to decay. The tau has a one dipole shell. It would be stable in a high energy environment that could provide two dimensions of containment.

The electron/muon/tau have six electrinos payload. If we remove the payload we get the neutrino dipole family. These dipoles appear to oscillate such that each is detectable periodically. There are likely to be n-body equations that match each composite particle configuration.

Dipoles are dipoles. There is only one knob and that is energy. Energy determines radius, area, point charge velocity, length scaling, and time scaling. The Koide formula has led to the discovery of the containment *architecture* for standard matter particles.

I presume the three orthogonal point charge dipoles play a role in conservation. Do some composite particles implement containment with complex wave equations? I bet so. It’s a matter of creation reactions and decay reactions. It is Conway’s game of life.

The universe is a perpetual energy and point charge system. The density of point charges and the density of energy on all scales of locality leads to emergence of structure. The galaxy is the dominant large scale structure that implements the main recycling network of reactions. There are larger scale galaxy clusters but they appear to be galaxies naturally gravitating into groupings that flow and mix.

Galaxies recycle energetic immutable point charges from near zero energy to Planck energy and back again with an enormous network of emergent structure forming & decay reactions with a variety of reaction products. Macro reaction process chains can span large ranges of scale.

Galaxy clusters appear to result mostly in mergers and births of new galaxies and organizing space into filaments dense with galaxies as well as reducing the density in large regions. Are there larger scale structures and how do they map in to the network?

Scientists : Point charges are immutable which is even better than conserved. You can now precisely count them in reactions to find missing low energy inputs or outputs our instruments can not yet detect. You can also use these new conservation laws in theory or simulation.

*J Mark Morris : San Diego : California *

## Leave a Reply