I’ve recently simplified the terminology of NPQG to describe the electrino and positrino as energy carrying point charges. By way of nature implementing a peak potential action field strength at a Planck scale radius from each point charge center,

There is a maximum curvature of the orbiting point charge dipole which occurs when point charge orbital velocity reaches @pi/2. ** The orbital dipole curvature limit is the genesis of the Planck scale.** It also suffices as a natural limit to grant the dipole an emergent characteristic of immutability in time and space. If the maximum curvature did not depend on field speed then the orbiting dipole could continue receiving energy while the radius approached zero on the 1/r curve, forever. Thus we can deduce that point charges are conserved. The sphere of immutability is what guarantees that there are no singularities in the universe. None.

So how do these indestructible point charges behave? The point charges obey classical mechanics combined with standard electromagnetism. Coulomb’s law defines forces of attraction and repulsion which are based upon fields that each point charge continuously emits. So things bounce around, some patterns form, sometimes a pattern is stable for a while and we call that structure. At very high energies, extremely stable patterns form that we call protons, neutrons, electrons, photons, and neutrinos. Then there are the point charges that somehow lose almost all of their energy. They sort of lazily float around and form little charged dipoles that spin and those dipoles bounce into one another and sometimes there are other low energy constructs made of point charges, like super low energy photons or neutrinos.

So all of that is pretty straightforward, right? Well there are a few curve balls nature throws in that may well be why the universe behaves the way it does. Here is my Version 1.0 vision for the fine print on the operations manual of a point charge. The next step will be to write the math to implement this and see if it mates with the state of the art math in physics. Then revert and repeat until everything makes sense.

- Each point charge’s sphere of immutability is implemented by a maximum curvature orbit when velocity equals pi/2 times field speed.
- In Einstein’s Riemannian general relativity,
**c**is a constant, while in Euclidean NPQG**c**is a variable. It is really two ways to look at the same universe. - Each point charge responds to the vector sum (superposition) of the potential fields it receives from all other point charges in the universe. Keep in mind that potential field falls off with the inverse of the distance from the source.
- When each point charge receives potential fields these are vectors and if you traced them backwards towards the source, you would find that the source had moved. It may have moved an infinitessimal amount if it is nearby and relatively slow, or it may have moved a lot if it is traveling at high speeds or far away. General relativity partially addresses this issue and it is illustrated in this diagram from the Feynman Lectures.

It puzzles me greatly that I can not find a standard treatment of orbiting point charges in the scientific literature. Why not? Isn’t that an obvious subject to study given the similarity of Coulomb’s law to the law of gravitation? I would have thought there would be a whole field studying the N-body motion of point charges.

Poisson, E., Pound, A. & Vega, I. The Motion of Point Particles in Curved Spacetime.

The motion of a point electric charge in flat spacetime was the subject of active investigation since the early work of Lorentz, Abrahams, Poincaré, and Dirac, until Gralla, Harte, and Wald produced a definitive derivation of the equations motion with all the rigour that one should demand, without recourse to postulates and renormalization procedures.Living Rev. Relativ.14,7 (2011). https://doi.org/10.12942/lrr-2011-7

Let’s turn our attention to one of the most primitive assemblies that emerges in the universe which is the orbiting point charge dipole. Also, let’s apply the Feynman lesson from above regarding the direction of the apparent source of the field. Interestingly this appears to be a stable assembly. It looks like a dynamo or flywheel and it has a mechanism to store energy. It may also help us define mass! It has a number of other special properties we’ll discuss. In combination dipoles can act like gyroscopes!

The diagram shows positive and negative point charges orbiting each other and it also shows the apparent direction of the electric fields emitted by each point charge. Theta, radius, point charge velocity and energy are all related. As energy is gained, speed increases, causing a relativistic effect θ which rotates the electric force, which causes r to shrink to balance the electric and magnetic forces on the axis θ=0.

As θ increases each point charge nears the opposite charge’s apparent location, and thus the E and B fields are stronger, which is part of the energy storage mechanism. The distance tau is determined by the **local** speed of light. In Einstein’s geometry **c** is constant. In nature **c** varies.

The transformation hinges on treating the speed of point charge potential emissions, symbol @, as a universal constant. The curvy spacetime of general relativity is implemented by the radius and frequency of the dipole. The relative change in radius is known as the contracted length in general relativity. The absolute time to make one revolution of the dipole is known as dilated time in general relativity.

I think this construct incorporates feedback. My expectation is that Planck’s constant **h** J⋅s is a tipping point between quantum levels. A pole. The quanta of course being Planck’s constant **h** J⋅s which is the basic unit of electromagnetic action and is measured in Joule-seconds. This makes sense because the dipole is both a clock and a ruler.

Awesome, so nature is continuous and the quantum of energy is emergent. I’m thinking we have a lot of equations that apply here, known endpoints at 0 and the Planck frequency, and perhaps too many constants.

Quantum mechanics is dead! Long live quantum mechanics! Yep, we have crushed a theoretical foundation of quantum mechanics and at the same time restored faith in quantum mechanics because uncertainty is based on a tipping point, a mathematical concept.

Quantum mechanics did not understand that there is a layer below their quantum, a universe of point charges that interact **continuously** via classical mechanics and electromagnetics informed by new theoretical insights. One emergent construct is the energy quanta storing point charge dipole. The quanta of energy is emergent!

Much of the behavior of the dipole appears to be a linear system. It makes sense that emergent stable point charge constructs have linear systems like behaviour especially with regards to energy storage. Note that linear systems satisfy the property of superposition.

The point charge dipole is an emergent construct that has an absolutely incredible set of capabilities :

- Battery
- Energy Accumulator / Accountant
- Variable Duration Clock — Einstein’s time
- Variable Length Ruler — Einstein’s length
- Nested assembly used in standard model matter
- Is able to contain personality charges in its polar vortices.
- Can function in groups as a gimbal to preserve momentum.
- Three dipoles makes for containment in three dimensions as in a Generation I fermion.
- Two dipoles makes for 2D containment in a Generation II fermion.
- One dipole makes for 1D containment in a Generation III fermion.

In the Euclidean frame of background void space, the speed of photons varies as the inverse of the square root of permittivity x permeability. Permittivity and permeability vary depending on local electromagnetic field strength which depends on local mass (aka appparent energy) density.

Once you understand that spacetime is an assembly of point charges, and they behave like nested orbiting dipoles, you can examine the Universe from the comfortable position of a Euclidean 3D volume with distance and time measured in absolute units that are valid everywhere.

*J Mark Morris : San Diego : California*