Big Bang vs. Steady State

Given energetic immutable point charges permeating a flat Euclidean space and time, emergence creates our universe.
NPQG unifies GR and QM and transforms ΛCDM.

RIDDLE ME THIS : How can a universe expand without increasing in size? This turns out to be a key issue in the steady state vs. big bang debate. Unfortunately, during the decades the the debate raged, the science of black holes was immature and there was no knowledge that supermassive black holes were at the center of nearly every galaxy. Now, with NPQG we know that expansion is galaxy local and neighbor galaxies oppose each other’s expansion.

In this video, Dr. Becky gives a lesson on this great debate on whether the universe is in quasi steady state or whether it originates via a big bang. As you watch and listen to this episode, pay careful attention to debate points that are influenced by the insight of galaxy local expansion. Check it out and come back for discussion below.

Let’s go through the debate points one by one and I’ll provide the NPQG perspective.

Debate pointPoint charge perspective
How did the universe begin?While NPQG provides a very frugal set of ingredients for the universe, NPQG does not tell us how the universe began or if it had a beginning. For all we know the universe has always existed. NPQG does not tell us if there was an origin for the background Euclidean 3D space and 1D time or the energetic, point charges. It seems at this point as if all of these questions are unknown and very likely unknowable.

The lack of an origin for the universe is an opportunity for those who will create imaginary stories with no basis in fact or logic. As we know from history, imaginary and disparate views of that which is unknowable can be used in both good and evil ways. However, given how much we will know about nature in the NPQG era, it is my hope that any origin stories that arise are limited in their ability to influence large numbers of people negatively.
What is the overall model of the universe?

ΛCDM describes an event that occurred around 13.8 B years ago that created spacetime and matter-energy and the laws of physics. Since then the universe has been growing in size via expansion. Matter-energy falls into black holes and the model does not know what happens, but it does say that black holes can evaporate over time periods many orders of magnitude larger than 13.8 B years, presumably if they stop ingesting, which will happen when the universe spreads out so much that energy density drops to near zero.

In my view the narrative of ΛCDM is poor and has far too many leap of faith issues and open unanswered questions.
NPQG describes a universe of unknown and presumed infinite age, future, and physical extent. The dominant process cycle is based upon highly independent galaxy local dynamics. The galaxy center SMBH Planck core breaches the poles of the SMBH through which jets of point charge plasma escapes, forms structures which inflate and generally follow a similar process locally as described by big bang and inflation. Spacetime is implemented with a physical æther that expands in the galaxy until meeting spacetime aether expanding from neighbor galaxies. Thus the universe is in quasi steady state.

There are large scale processes in regions of the universe where gravitational attraction causes galaxy mergers and cluster formation.

SMBH jets may birth new galaxies.

There is the possibility of black holes, perhaps ultra-massive black holes, that so rarely disgorge matter-energy that they are essentially only a sink of matter-energy for extremely long time periods.
The static universe as conceived by Einstein.

Einstein introduced a cosmological constant, Λ into his equations to act against the idea of gravity eventually collapsing the entire universe so that a fixed size universe would remain quasi static. Einstein later called Λ his biggest blunder. However, in Einstein’s conception Λ balances the universe on a knife edge. If Λ is too large the universe would expand forever and if Λ were too small the universe would contract and collapse.

Friedmann generalized solutions to Einstein’s equations that allowed for open, closed, and flat universes.
NPQG is based on a flat Euclidean space and time. This empty void is permeated by point charge assemblies, each containing a subassembly that changes volume and frequency with energy. At lower energies, the most populous assemblies are those that implement the spacetime aether.

The best fit is that the universe is dominated by the galaxy local recycling process and thus steady state. Einstein’s Λ is a very rough description of the expansion rate of aether intergalactically. It is counterbalanced dynamically by opposing expansions from neighbor galaxies, the redshift of the photons and neutrinos, and the attrition of æther transmutation to standard matter-energy.

Note that Λ is not a constant and is not a free parameter. Λ is a local phenomenon driven by galaxy dynamics.
Lemaitre linked observations of redshift to an expanding universe where distant celestial objects were moving apart. Then Lemaitre imagined rewinding the expansion to a single point and event that he called the cosmic egg.NPQG teaches that these were fundamental cognitive errors. It is possible for expansion to be everywhere in the universe without the size of the universe increasing and objects receding from each other. Therefore Lemaitre’s idea of rewinding time to project back to a single origin event is erroneous.
Relic energy of the big bang event should be detectable as redshifted photons from the farthest observable portions of the universe.NPQG teaches that independent, intermittent galaxy-local SMBH bang/inflation events are also a solution to the CMB and isotropy. Consider the number of active photon generating galaxies that must be in the surface region of the observable universe that was probed via the Planck satellite measurement of the CMB. Furthermore all intervening galaxy quasars (AGN SMBH) would intermittently emit photons of lesser energies that may have redshifted into the microwave band by the time they reach our instruments.

Lastly isotropy is guaranteed because the recycling process passes through the Planck core state which is a form of matter-energy that has one microstate, zero entropy, and contains no information. Therefore the same physics is guaranteed in each galaxy subject to local variation.
In 1948 Hoyle, Gold, and Bondi proposed an eternal steady state universe idea. They suggested that as the universe expands as a whole that new matter would be created to fill the created space.NPQG is an eternal steady state model.

NPQG properly explains expansion as galaxy local and in opposition, which will have the same effect on a photon as conceived in theories where the universe as a whole is expanding.

NPQG provides mechanisms whereby physical spacetime æther creates a ‘particle rain’ e.g., pair production and other mechanisms where aether can be converted to the standard model forms of matter-energy that gravitate and thus eventually the process direction is toward the SMBH the Planck core, and recycling via the Planck plasma jets which creates new spacetime æther.

Essentially NPQG is aligned with steady-state ideas of Hoyle, Narlikar, and Burbridge et al, while providing an improved understanding and a physical mechanism.
Ryle found that radio sources were denser at greater distances. This was interpreted that radio sources were more comman long ago than they are today. This interpretation was confirmed with optical observatons of quasars. This is called the evolution of the universe. The term ‘space density’ is also used.

Wikipedia says “Observations show that more distant galaxies are closer together and have lower content of chemical elements heavier than lithium.”
This is related to the issue of the cosmological principle of space but not time. The wikipedia page lists a number of inconsistencies related to large quasar group structures that are far larger than predicted possible.

This is an open issue for NPQG. If NPQG is correct, then one possibility is some kind of non-linearity in the redshift-frequency-distance relationship that results in the deduction that objects are closer than they actually are. This could happen if redshift per parsec were less for higher energy photons than lower energy photons. This could make sense since higher energy photons have a smaller radius. If the observed objects are more distant this would reduce the density and solve the large quasar group size issues as well.

NPQG expects that the perfect cosmological principle to hold, that is the universe is expected to be homegenous and isotropic in both space and time.
The universe begins with a singularity.In NPQG, the end of the crunch is at the Planck core in a SMBH which corresponds to Einstein’s singularity. The next phase is the breach of event horizon at the poles of the SMBH and the jetting of Planck plasma which inflates, corresponding to the bang and inflation.

It is somewhat amazing and perplexing that scientists consider the big bang to arise from a singularity while they also talk about singularities in black holes, but they do not connect the dots.
ΛCDM provides no explanation for how matter-energy can come from nothing in either the big bang or steady state theory.NPQG explains that matter-energy recycles through the SMBH. Both energy and point charges are conserved.

In my view, NPQG provides strong explanations that flip the debate outcome back to the universe being considered quasi-steady state and following the perfect cosmological principle. That said there are two issues that need further work in NPQG and that is re-interpreting spatial density of structure vs. time observations as well as finding an alternate interpretation for the measurements that led to the concept of the accelerating expansion of the universe.

J Mark Morris : San Diego : California