Dr. Lawrence Krauss posted a fascinating series of “5 Minute Physics” videos circa April/May 2020. They are filmed in and around his Oregon home, which is in a lovely woods with a creek running through it, and this yields a very pleasing viewing experience. In this post I’ll review Dr. Krauss’s videos and compare and contrast **NPQG**.

**Episode 19 **: Dr. Krauss discusses escape velocities from earth and black holes and also discusses density required for various size black holes.

**Episode 20 **: Dr. Krauss discusses acceleration at a black hole event horizon, potential energy conversion to kinetic energy, and Hawking radiation.

**Episode 21** : Dr. Krauss discusses three black hole paradoces, including the information loss paradox and other exotic characteristics of black holes.

Up until this point, NPQG has imagined the development of a Planck core in each SMBH and intermittent Planck plasma polar jets. The core is a phase change of spacetime æther that resolves the confusion around Einstein’s singularity. The intermittent jets are the physical implementation of the big bang, inflation, and expansion. This means that ΛCDM will need to be modified to reframe a number of ‘universal scope’ processes to be galaxy local processes. Fortunately this means that many ΛCDM tensions will be resolved, for example the Hubble tension.

Dr. Krauss’s episodes 19 thru 21 have caused a brainstorm of new ideas around SMBH physics which I tweeted to Dr. Krauss. I’ll simply copy those tweets here and note that they are ** preliminary**. In future blog posts I’ll work on these ideas in more detail.

- I’m pretty sure I can solve these three paradoxes in my NPQG model which is based on immutable, charged, point charges. Stay with me, that’s all fair game. The key is understanding a black hole Planck core, which is point charges packed as tight as possible (HCP/FCC).
- In a Planck core all motion of point charges has stopped. That means time has stopped. All electromagnetic potential energy. Zero kinetic energy relative to the rest of the core. That means zero temperature. There is only one microstate. That means no information and no entropy. (It also means something about the 2nd law).
- Black hole theory is incomplete. The event horizon is not well understood. No singularity. No wormholes. Polar jets = mini bang, inflation, and then galaxy local inflation. LCDM is wrong.
- Multiverse = billions/trillions of SMBH doing their thing — the crunch, breach, Planck plasma jets, inflation, expansion of galaxies INTO one another. No Hubble tension. No begin/end/size of universe known. Spacetime is an emergent aether of point charges.
- Modern physics describes characteristics of emergent structure at many orders of magnitude above Planck scale. Background to universe is Euclidean void. Spacetime aether acts Riemannian except at Planck scale where it gets chunky – hence UV and IR divergence, renormalization.
- String theory, loop quantum gravity, and Bohmian mechanics physicists better saddle up and make immutable charged Planck particles their lowest layer in a flat void. Cosmologists need to transform LCDM. Astronomers rise to 1st in stature for a long time due to physics mess.
- The interior of a Planck core is cubic packed (HCP, FCC) point charges. I imagine that the electrinos and positrinos would take on a regular pattern that maximizes the electromagnetic energy content such that each sphere is carrying the Planck energy.
- The electrinos and positrinos in a Planck core shield the potential of neighbors via superposition. This leads to the fascinating effect of ‘mass hiding’ in a Planck core. Impacts galaxy rotation curves?
- The surface of the Planck core is essentially electrino/positrino dipoles packed as tight as possible. This is the ultimate gravitational attractor. At one Planck length above the surface, permittivity and permeability are at their maximum and speed of light is at its minimum.
- So the big question is how do the polar jets form? I am guessing it has something to do with spin. Perhaps the SMBH accumulates increasing angular motion via accretion and mergers and eventually the aether (ne frame) dragging at the poles creates some kind of vortex.
- A great question is the density of spacetime aether in the vortex. Ultimately, when low or zero density aether in the vortex reaches the SMBH surface, the jet will commence. If accretion inflow < outflow, the SMBH will begin shrinking in radius and shedding angular momentum.
- The mass of the SMBH is entirely presented by its surface. The very dense dragged aether near the surface is also a factor. At some point depending on inflow and outflow, the spin will slow, the polar vortices will seal, and jet cutoff will occur. Absolutely fascinating!!!

I hope the readers who make it through all of these videos and my responses will appreciate Dr. Krauss’s series as well as see how the GR-QM-ΛCDM era will be supplanted by NPQG.

*J Mark Morris : San Diego : California*