## Lawrence Krauss : 5 Minute Physics : Episodes 4 thru 7

Dr. Lawrence Krauss posted a fascinating series of “5 Minute Physics” videos circa April/May 2020. They are filmed in and around his Oregon home, which is in a lovely woods with a creek running through it, and this yields a very pleasing viewing experience. In this post I’ll review Dr. Krauss’s videos and compare and contrast NPQG.

Episode 4: Dr. Krauss demonstrates the force of gravity by dropping a heavy book and a lightweight balled piece of paper to show that gravity affects them in the same way. Modern physics explains gravity as the rate and direction of change of the curvature of spacetime. This is hard for most people to understand, or even visualize, so usually physicists don’t talk about this much, and instead focus on traditional formulas such as $\mathbf{F = \frac {G M_{1} M_{2}} {r^2}}$.

In NPQG we can give a much more natural and satisfactory explanation although the following introductory explanation is rather long winded. The force of gravity is a result of the rate and direction of the change of the energy of spacetime æther, i.e., the gradient of spacetime energy. Spacetime æther is so lightly interacting with normal matter that we almost consider it non-interacting — at low energy it certainly doesn’t interact like molecules of air and resist motion as air does. Instead, spacetime æther passes right through matter-energy. However, there is a different kind of interaction that we need to understand.

Matter-energy heats spacetime æther in a cyclic ebb and flow with no net permanent energy transferred, but there is a net outstanding energy from the matter contained in nearby spacetime æther and that energy falls off as the square of the distance from every particle of matter. Hence if matter is dense and/or energetic, the nearby spacetime æther is more energetic than spacetime æther that is farther away from matter-energy. Here is the really cool part: all matter-energy naturally seeks higher energy spacetime æther. Why? Matter-energy seeks higher energy spacetime æther because the hotter the spacetime æther, the less energy the matter-energy particle must pulse to present its mass.

So, when Dr. Krauss removes his hands supporting the book, each particle in the book immediately senses that the spacetime æther adjacent and below the particle is warmer than the cooler spacetime æther adjacent and above the particle. The spacetime æther below the book is hotter than that above because all the particles on the Earth side of the book are heating the æther and that heating is decreasing with the square of the radius. Above the book there is really not much there to counterbalance the heating from the Earth – just a few trees, birds, planes, atmosphere and then outer space. This gradient of spacetime energy causes a force on each particle. When we sum that force over the billions of atoms in the book, the net force of gravity is quite significant and the book feels a force towards Earth, and it falls with acceleration g.

Episode 5 : Dr. Krauss talks us through some straightforward math on energy density of matter, radiation energy, and dark energy. This involves relating energy density to pressure. Energy density is one of the two free parameters in NPQG. The other free parameter the density of point charges. The pressure of spacetime æther is caused by the two free NPQG parameters. We can also visualize the pressure of the æther by imagining the opposing expansions from neighboring galaxies throughout the universe.

Episode 6 : This episode is about symmetry and conservation. It turns out that NPQG has all the same symmetries as GR-QM era physics and a few more, even ones that GR-QM era physics has given up on! NPQG is based on two fundamental Planck scale particles, the electrino and positrino, and these particles are indestructible and hence conserved. In fact these particles are the only carriers of energy and hence are essential to the symmetries around conservation of charge, energy, momentum, and angular momentum. It’s a bit deep for this post, but GR-QM era physics believes charge-parity (CP) symmetry has been violated in experiments. NPQG predicts that this is an incorrect conclusion and that when spacetime æther particles and all reaction inputs and outputs are considered, that CP symmetry will be preserved.

Episode 7 : Dr. Krauss says “We are linear beings in an exponential world.” This is a great quote. To truly understand physics and cosmology, your mind must be capable of easily scaling up and down through 60 orders of magnitude from Planck scale at the smallest, to the size of the observable and possibly infinite universe at the high end. Dr. Krauss returns to the discussion of the expanding universe from the Big Bang to present. As I mentioned before, in NPQG some SMBH can develop Planck particle cores which are the absolute densest, highest energy matter in the universe. Furthermore under certain conditions those cores can breach the event horizon of the SMBH, usually at the poles and form jets of Planck plasma which inflate, cool, and react to make more spacetime æther and other elements of the standard model. This is an exponential inflation because Planck scale particles are on the order of $\mathbf{10c^-35}$ and typical matter-energy particles we observe in the universe are around 20 orders of magnitude larger. This process is occasionally occurring throughout the universe and this is the cause of the similarity in all regions of the universe. Furthermore, this galaxy local process also drives expansion of galaxies INTO one another. Yes, expansion happens throughout the universe but from the heart of each galaxy such that these expansions are in opposition. Thus simplifies cosmology are great deal and renders invalid many nonsensical ideas of ΛCDM cosmology.

I hope the readers who make it through all of these videos and my responses will appreciate Dr. Krauss’s series as well as see how the GR-QM-ΛCDM era will be supplanted by NPQG.

J Mark Morris : San Diego : California : July 18, 2020 : v1