Let’s talk about particle rain. When we think of a recycling universe, it’s rather obvious what is happening at the SMBH furnaces of the process, with matter and energy ingested, then compacted to the highest particle and energy density possible — a Planck core of densely packed immutable charged Planck spheres with Planck energy, zero information, and zero entropy. When this pure form of matter-energy is exposed to a weakness at the poles of the SMBH it blasts through the event horizon in a pair of enormously powerful Planck plasma jets. Those jets generate new spacetime æther particles as well as composite particles of the standard model. If you have been following NPQG, this process has been discussed in detail.
In the GR-QM-ΛCDM era we have discovered many cyclic forms of nature. One example is the water cycle shown above. One cogent question is “what are the cyclic processes at each scale point in space and energy”? What are the largest scale cyclic process? By eliminating the one time inflationary big bang and replacing it with a recycling mini-bang/inflationary/expansionary galaxy local model and a steady state universe, then we must become aware of additional large scale cyclic processes.
NPQG teaches that a galaxy is an open cyclic process even though many galaxy processes are essentially closed, meaning they stay within the galaxy. However, galaxies interact, so there are many events that cause change or disruption to cycles, the most obvious of which is the galaxy merger. We know there are galaxy clusters. We know there are cosmic webs between clusters. Is the cosmic web the ultimate scale that is repeated throughout the universe with local fluctuations that don’t form a larger pattern? What lies beyond?
Let’s consider the ideal model of a closed recycling galaxy. In the ideal case the surface manifold of the galaxy experiences a uniform pressure of external spacetime æther opposing expansion and a mixing of spacetime æther in the region of the surface of the manifold. In this ideal case we consider a pure spacetime æther with a very sparse stochastic fluctuation of baryonic matter. Even in these sparse conditions, there are many photons and neutrinos passing through.
In reality, galaxy to galaxy interfaces and interactions are highly varied based on the large variety of both galaxies and intergalactic distances. This explains why it has been difficult to determine the H0 constant and that is precisely because it is NOT a constant. In every direction photons will have experienced quite a variety of spacetime expansion and contraction fluctuations along their path through the expanding regions nearby many galaxies.
The spacetime æther in the outer surfaces of a galaxy, in purest form, as well as turbulent opposing expansion form, will be experiencing spontaneous reactions that produce composite standard matter particles. We can call this “particle rain“. This is a good metaphor because the conditions in any reaction cloud determine the particle outputs that rain from any reaction. Particle rain is immediately subject to the laws of motion and gravity and each particle will begin an inexorable path that is influenced towards higher energy spacetime æther, which we find where matter-energy is concentrated.
Let’s conclude this article with some information about the contents of outer space.
Outer space, or simply space, is the expanse that exists beyond Earth and between celestial bodies. Outer space is not completely empty—it is a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles, predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium, as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust, and cosmic rays. The baseline temperature of outer space,
as set by the background radiation from the Big Bang, is 2.7 Kelvin. The plasma between galaxies accounts for about half of the baryonic (ordinary) matter in the universe; it has a number density of less than one hydrogen atom per cubic metre and a temperature of millions of kelvins. Local concentrations of matter have condensed into stars and galaxies. Studies indicate that 90% of the mass in most galaxies is in an unknown form, called dark matter, which interacts with other matter through gravitational but not electromagnetic forces. Observations suggest that the majority of the mass-energy in the observable universe is dark energy, a type of vacuum energy that is poorly understood. [Note: NPQG offers several potential solutions for ‘dark matter’ and ‘dark energy’] Intergalactic space takes up most of the volume of the universe, but even galaxies and star systems consist almost entirely of empty space.
Estimates put the average energy density of the present day Universe at the equivalent of 5.9 protons per cubic meter, including dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter (ordinary matter composed of atoms). The atoms account for only 4.6% of the total energy density, or a density of one proton per four cubic meters.
The air humans breathe contains about 1025 molecules per cubic meter. The low density of matter in outer space means that electromagnetic radiation can travel great distances without being scattered: the mean free path of a photon in intergalactic space is about 1023 km, or 10 billion light years.Wikipedia – ‘Outer Space’
One unknown in NPQG is the density of spacetime æther at different energies. I would expect that spacetime æther would be fairly dense even in deep space in intergalactic voids. Such calculations will be deferred until we have a method to relate spacetime æther energy to its density.
J Mark Morris : San Diego : California : June 19, 2020