Dr. Lawrence Krauss posted a fascinating series of “5 Minute Physics” videos circa April/May 2020. They are filmed in and around his Oregon home, which is in a lovely woods with a creek running through it, and this yields a very pleasing viewing experience. In this post I’ll review Episodes 1 thru 3 of Dr. Krauss’s videos and compare and contrast with **NPQG**.

**Episode 1**: Dr. Krauss begins with a discussion of the idea of the expanding universe and the well known example of an expanding balloon. Most people, including physicists, have a very difficult time imagining space expanding and for good reason, because it is counter-intuitive to our normal everyday experience of space. In NPQG the background space does not expand, but instead, the spacetime æther that fills the universe expands outward from each galaxy during some epochs. These epochs are characterized by the central SMBH in the galaxy jetting Planck plasma and the creation of new spacetime æther which inflates and expands as it cools. In NPQG it is also possible for spacetime æther to have a directional flow which may be helpful to explain certain anisotropic flows in the universe as well as factoring into the varying measurements of the speed of light. The NPQG narrative is far more logical because it is natural to understand an æther that is flowing or expanding.

**Episode 2**: Dr Krause continues his discussion of the expanding universe. Of course this idea comes from the observations of redshift of light that have been interpreted as indicators that most galaxies are receding from our own galaxy. This also dovetails with the idea of a one time inflationary Big Bang event from whence the universe emerged. In contrast NPQG does not rely on a one time inflationary Big Bang and instead hypothesizes galaxy local inflationary mini-bangs where Planck particle cores may form in galaxy center SMBH and those cores may occasionally breech the event horizon at the poles of the SMBH and emit Planck plasma in polar jets. Those jets may also sweep along material in the surrounding accretion disc which standard physics suggests as the source for the material in the jet. After inflation, the spacetime æther continues to expand as it cools. Instead of the whole universe expanding outward, galaxies expand in to each other, like the marshmallows in the picture below.

Furthermore, NPQG attributes ‘redshift’ of light to an expanded list of causes, which includes traveling through expansionary galaxy local regions or traveling through a headwind (redshift) or tailwind (blueshift) of spacetime æther. We can’t directly test the mechanisms for photon energy shift because we have no observations on which to base them upon, and that is because we are not yet able to detect NPQG’s hypothesized spacetime æther particles.

Dr. Krauss calculates energy density in a spherical region of space with radius R as a sum of mass density and radiation density. He shows that mass density is proportional to and the radiation density is proportional to . He then correlates this to ‘early time‘ and ‘late time‘ based on the big bang paradigm that predicts the age of the universe as 13.8 billion years. He goes on to say that the early universe was dominated by radiation, and the late universe is dominated by mass. In NPQG the energy density of mass in the universe is constant and the energy density of radiation is a constant because there is no change in volume of the universe. That said, there may be some fluctuation over time depending on the scale and region examined.

In NPQG, there is no single inflationary big bang, and instead we have distributed parallel mini-bangs happening throughout space and time via jet eruptions from galaxy center SMBH. Therefore, when Dr. Krauss talks about ‘early time’ and ‘late time’ this does not apply to NPQG. Instead we consider the density of radiation and matter a function of spatial location nearby these mini-bang events. In the proximity of a Planck plasma jet from an SMBH, and for the dozens or hundreds of light years that jet extends, radiation energy density will dominate over matter-energy density. As that radiation cools and reacts it will form matter-energy and in cooler areas of the universe such as in the arms of a galaxy, matter-energy dominates radiation energy. Note that the traditional big bang timeline still happens, but it happens at a smaller scale throughout the universe whenever an SMBH erupts. I’ve shown that by overlaying small replicas of the big bang timeline on the jetting SMBH in the image below.

Dr. Krauss concludes this episode by mentioning the mysteries of dark energy and dark matter. In NPQG these are not mysteries at all, because spacetime is a particle based æther. The key idea is that spacetime particles are incredibly small and have very low energy. The black body radiation spectrum for interstellar space corresponds to the 2.7 Kelvin temperature of the cosmic microwave background. However, there number of spacetime particles is so enormous that if we sum the tiny energy of each spacetime particle it is expected to account for dark energy. Furthermore, spacetime æther gains energy near to matter-energy and this heating of the spacetime æther causes each spacetime particle to shrink in radius. This shrinking in radius is what implements Einstein’s curvy spacetime. The spacetime æther near neutron stars and black holes is heated so much that the curvature of spacetime becomes quite pronounced and is observable via the lensing or refraction of photons which pass nearby. What else do we know from Einstein? ! Therefore the energy of the spacetime æther itself acts massy and hence we have an implementation for dark matter.

Lastly Dr. Krauss shows that if the total volume of space were expanding the total energy of space must increase as well. This seems odd in the Einstein conception of empty spacetime, because it begs the question of where did that energy come from. In NPQG we have a source of new energetic spacetime æther from Planck plasma jets. If there were only one SMBH in the universe then we could reconcile Dr. Krauss’s teaching. However, in NPQG galaxies are expanding into each other and the total volume of the universe or any portion of it is not changing. To the extent that the production of new spacetime æther appears to scientists as an expansion of space, well in NPQG that is just more spacetime æther, so of course the energy increases. And finally Dr. Krauss says the idea that the energy density of space stays constant even though space is expanding is also a mystery, but in NPQG it shouldn’t be so, because energy density of spacetime æther is always directly related to the temperature of that spacetime æther and the measurements of cosmologists will largely be over mostly empty spacetime.

**Episode 3**:

The key factor to understand here is that spacetime æther is expanding around every galaxy that has developed processes that produce more net spacetime æther than the net production **+** consumption of matter-energy. This is perfectly normal as the main loop in the universe is the recycling of matter-energy into spacetime æther and radiation. The biggest producer-consumer is the galaxy center SMBH which can develop a Planck core and occasionally breach the event horizon at the poles.

When a Planck core breaches the event horizon it causes a jet of Planck plasma which inflates and reacts to produce more spacetime æther and radiation. This explanation has all the characteristics of what Dr. Krauss describes in this episode less the one-time inflation, Big Bang, and expanding universe.

Ingredients for the Universe:

- A 3D Euclidean void space
- Ample pairs of immutable Planck radius spherical particles that come in two types: the electrino and the positrino, equal and oppositely charged
- Kinetic and electromagnetic energy which can only be carried by such particles
- Classical mechanics and Maxwell’s equations.

The final point to make here is that if you consider the diagonal lines that Dr. Krauss has drawn on his chart in Episodes 2 and 3 they you will realize those are horizontal lines in NPQG. This and what I have described above clears up all the mysteries that Dr. Krauss discusses.

*J Mark Morris : San Diego : California : May 23, 2020 : v1*