Forces, Mass, and Gravity

Imagine that nature emerges from a Euclidean 3D void space populated with immutable oppositely charged Planck spheres, which we call the electrino and the positrino. These are the only carriers of energy, in electromagnetic and kinetic form. They observe classical mechanics and Maxwell’s equations. Nature overlays Euclidean space (Map 1) with a lightly interacting Riemannian spacetime æther (Map 2). 𝗡𝗣𝗤𝗚 is compatible with GR, QM, and ΛCDM observations, while providing a superior narrative that explains nature and the universe.
For 𝗡𝗣𝗤𝗚 basics see: Idealized Neoclassical Model and the NPQG Glosssary.

Here is a conceptual diagram to illustrate the four forces of nature.

  • The strong interaction is the containment force that a shell imposes on its payload.
  • The gravitational interaction is a shell to shell ebb and flow of energy.
  • The electromagnetic interaction is between charged payloads.
  • The weak interaction occurs when a particle is undergoing a reaction and the configuration of the shell and payload are changing.

Let’s talk about gravitational force because that seems to be the least well understood physically. Einstein described gravitation with beautiful mathematics in general relativity, but the implementation he described is incomplete. Einstein attributed gravitation and acceleration in general as the warping of spacetime around mass. Besides being terribly non-intuitive with respect to warping of spacetime, there is a second issue in that mass is not well understood—there is no general theory of mass.

In NPQG we understand mass to be related to the containment energy in a particle shell or shells. We also understand spacetime to be implemented with a universe permeating æther of particles comprised of empty shells. These spacetime æther shells have very low energy in free space and the black body radiation spectrum of spacetime æther is 2.7 Kelvin, and the fact that is the same as the “CMB” is no coincidence. The shells of neighboring particles impart an ebb and flow of energy on each other, with the high energy shells of fermionic matter particles dominating the energy dynamic in low energy spacetime æther.

Spacetime æther provides the mechanisms to implement gravity and Einstein’s curvy spacetime. Specifically, the energy (temperature) of spacetime æther and the gradient of spacetime æther temperature are the mechanisms that implement gravity via convection. Furthermore, spacetime æther particles shrink as they heat up, thereby implementing length contraction. And to top that off, as spacetime æther heats up, the electrinos and positrinos in the spacetime æther shells move faster and this is the implementation mechanism for time dilation.

My friend, Dr. Kirsten Hacker, a physicist with two decades of experience, often writes about physics in an intuitive descriptive language in which I find similarities to concepts in NPQG. I find this exciting because Kirsten is reducing from mathematical language to intuitive descriptions, while I am working from a neoclassical foundation and attempting to reverse engineer nature and the universe intuitively and deductively. So when we both arrive at similar concepts, that is a very promising indicator that NPQG is directionally aligned with the mathematics of physics!

I’ll quote Kirsten’s blog post and video “An Exclusion Principle” as well as some of her Quora posts and comment about how they relate to NPQG. In these posts Kirsten is discussing mass and gravity.

“To solve the mass gap problem in the language of fields, a few heuristics must first be introduced. Per the original interpretation of the Laplacian, the gravitational field is caused by a linear, breathing motion of an object which is proportional to the energy or mass contained within the object. Per the equipartition theorem, this energy is made up of equal parts rotation and linear motion. An electromagnetic field is caused by rotational and linear motions that are perpendicular to and out of synch with the fluctuating pressure or breathing motion driving gravity. Because they are out of synch, gravitational and electromagnetic fields are constantly exchanging energy.”

Kirsten Hacker

I nearly bolted out of my chair when I saw Kirsten use the term “breathing motion,” because this is exactly what I have intuited in terms of the ebb and flow of energy between particle shells. I imagine that the breathing motion or ebb-and-flow is the result of the electrinos and positrinos in nearby shells coming into proximity as they fly their wave equation orbits. Thus electrinos would be attracted to positrinos electromagnetically and this would very slightly accelerate them upon approach, increasing their kinetic energy, and decelerate them after passing, decreasing their kinetic energy. Likewise as a positrino passes near to a positrino in another shell (or electrino passes electrino), the electromagnetic force of repulsion would slightly decelerate them as they approach and accelerate them after they pass. These motions would also produce a small wobble in the orbits of these particles depending on the push-me pull-you effect as Dr. Doolittle would say. This all ties together with the shells being the main component of mass.

The Laplacian is a differential operator given by the divergence of the gradient of a function on Euclidean space. That sounds a bit abstract, but “the divergence of the gradient” could also be written as “the change of a rate of change”, as in, you are swinging back and forth on a swing and someone pushes or pulls on you.”

Kirsten Hacker – Quora

The concept of the Laplacian is a direct fit with NPQG. The electrinos and positrinos in a shell are under constant acceleration as they travel the particle orbit. The magnitude of that acceleration is fairly constant but the direction is changing continuously, always pointing near the center. Now, add in the interaction with adjacent particle shells and you have the “change of the change” or the “divergence of the gradient”. Kirsten also calls this “jiggle.” Fantastic!

The concept of mass is not fundamentally intrinsic. Shell energy plays an important role in stability of the particle. At very low shell energies, it can not maintain containment and the particle decays. This corresponds to a low particle half-life. As shell energy increases, the stability duration elongates and the half life increases. Beyond that, if the shell energy increases further then at some point the particle might become radioactive and interact with spacetime æther to create high energy photons. Another important factor is the energy of the surrounding spacetime æther and the gradient or slope of that energy. In all of these cases, each shell is interacting with neighboring particles which are dominated by spacetime æther. That interaction involves changes in an alternating energy flux between particles. This flux factors into the mass of each particle.

  • Payload : composition, charge, energy
  • Shell : composition, energy
  • Spacetime æther : energy (temperature), and the gradient of energy.
  • Velocity
  • Acceleration

Once the formula or relationship for all of the mass factors is understood, we will be able to substitute in the revised equation in all places where mass is used. This will provide a physical explanation for the emergence of mass.

J Mark Morris : San Diego : California : April 25, 2020 : v1

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