NEOCLASSICAL PHYSICS AND QUANTUM GRAVITY *Imagine that nature emerges from ample pairs of immutable Planck radius spherical particles, the electrino and the positrino, which are equal yet oppositely charged. These are the only carriers of energy, in electromagnetic and kinetic form. The are located in an infinite 3D Euclidean space (non curvy) and observe classical mechanics and Maxwell’s equations. 𝗡𝗣𝗤𝗚 explores this recipe for nature and how it emerges as a narrative and theory that is compatible with GR and QM, yet far superior in ability to explain the universe and resolve open problems. **For *𝗡𝗣𝗤𝗚* basics see: Idealized Neoclassical Model and the NPQG Glossary.*

In this post we’ll talk about **radiation** and **radioactivity** and I’ll describe a new perspective on these topics in the context of NPQG. Let’s parse through the Wikipedia definition of ‘radiation’ and recast it in the framework and terminology of NPQG.

In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium. This includes:Wikipedia – Radiation – May 22, 2020

— electromagnetic radiation, such as radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, and gamma radiation (γ)

— particle radiation, such as alpha radiation (α), beta radiation (β), and neutron radiation (particles of non-zero rest energy)

— acoustic radiation, such as ultrasound, sound, and seismic waves (dependent on a physical transmission medium)

— gravitational radiation, radiation that takes the form of gravitational waves, or ripples in the curvature of spacetime.

### Electromagnetic Radiation

Electromagnetic radiation is the spectrum of photons from those at the Planck energy all the way down to those at the lowest photon energy possible. In NPQG photons are composites of classical particles. A photon is thought to be a configuration of 6 electrinos and 6 positrinos tracing wave equations modulated by neighbors’ electromagnetic fields. Frequency is determined by the velocity magnitude of the electrinos and positrinos, which determines the local time it takes for one full cycle of the wave equation. This is a complicated dynamic because at higher energies the orbits contract and at lower energies the orbits inflate/expand. All energy changes are quantized. In addition local electric and magnetic field densities influence local permittivity and permeability.

Riemannian geometryis designed to describe the universe of creatures who live on a curved surface or in acurved spaceand do not know about the world of higher dimensions or do not have any access to it.

In the 1910's, A.Einstein discovered that the Riemannian geometry can be successfully used to describe General Relativity which is in fact a classical theory of gravitation.Mikhail Shubin : Northeastern University : Department of Mathematics

`By its intrinsic beauty, as well as by wealth of applications, the Riemannian geometry lies at the core of modern mathematics.`

We express frequency in cycles per unit local time. Wavelength is the distance the particle travels each cycle. How shall we measure distance? Should we measure the absolute Euclidean distance in the flat space foundation for our universe or is it better to use the relative Riemannian distance in the spacetime gas that permeates the universe? If we consider ‘idealized’ spacetime gas at constant energy with no impinging radiation, and spacetime gas is not expanding or contracting, and no gravitational gradients, then there would be a proportionality conversion between distance in absolute Euclidean space and distance in relative Riemannian spacetime gas. Note also that the photon would maintain constant energy as it passed through. However if the spacetime gas temperature has a gradient, or is expanding or contracting, then the frequency and wavelength of the photon will change.

We need to think through carefully to understand and express the equations describing a photon in absolute Euclidean space and not get too confused by thinking about the Riemannian coordinates of spacetime gas. After all, the electromagnetic fields are truly dependent on the **actual** absolute spatial location and velocity of each electrino and positrino and thence the fields they generate. I sense that while mathematics that is based upon higher level constructs may well be useful, it is ultimately doomed as we descend to the fundamental scale. The fundamental scale is truly quantum, perhaps in a new sense of the word – electrinos and positrinos are the fundamental physical quanta that deliver the key to the lock. They deliver a minimum physical proximity of fundamental particles, a physical symmetry of an immutable sphere, and the characteristics of charge. They simply obey classical mechanics and Maxwell’s equations in the fundamental Euclidean space which is the background for our Universe.

Electromagnetic radiation is implemented by photons. High energy photons are much smaller and often penetrate through more matter before colliding. When a photon collides with fermionic matter it may excite the neutral shell of a composite matter-energy particle which will heat it up and change the reaction profile of the particle. The reaction profile is an enormous n-dimensional set of reactions that define how the particle participates in any situation. The reaction profile has regions that simply decay by emitting photons conforming to a black body spectrum defined by the shell energy and the shell temperature T. Other regions of the reaction profile include interactions with neighboring particles including spacetime gas and standard model particles and of course their energies. A radioactive particle may react with neighboring particles and change their nature — and for living tissue this can be very harmful.

Once we realize that nature is operating at this incredibly granular scale, it becomes obvious that no existing mathematical theory that can describe nature in terms of NPQG fundamental constituents.

### Particle Radiation

Wikipedia – Radiation

— particle radiation, such as alpha radiation (α), beta radiation (β), and neutron radiation (particles of non-zero rest energy).

We need to understand that the GR-QM era physics and hence Wikipedia are quite confused about particles and waves, so let’s translate this. By particle radiation they mean fermionic matter particles of the standard model – which will typically be configurations of protons, neutrons, electrons, and neutrinos.

As we know, photonic electromagnetic radiation is particle based, given that a photon is constructed from electrinos and positrinos.

The discussion on this type of radiation is therefore informed by electromagnetic radiation. Fermionic radiation is simply a different configuration of matter-energy that includes particles with shells enclosing payloads. For example protons, neutrons and electrons are composite particles with shells enclosing payloads. Neutrinos are payloads without shells.

### Acoustic Radiation

Wikipedia – Radiation

— acoustic radiation, such as ultrasound, sound, and seismic waves (dependent on a physical transmission medium)

Acoustic radiation appears to be a vibration in matter-energy in the atomic and molecular realm. This can be translated into the canonical form of electrinos and positrinos.

### Gravitational Radiation

Wikipedia – Radiation

— gravitational radiation, radiation that takes the form of gravitational waves, or ripples in the curvature of spacetime.

Gravitational radiation takes two forms. First is a flux wave traveling via particle shells (mostly spacetime gas particle shells) from the matter-energy flux of mass. In other words all shells are interacting with all other shells (except in the special case of a Planck core phase of electrinos and positrinos).

The second form of gravitational wave is a sinusoidal translational position wave of spacetime particles. This can also be extended into the science of spacetime gas flows, inflations, expansions, and contractions.

### Applying this Knowledge

Let’s call a **configuration** the specific matter-energy contents of a volume of **absolute Euclidean** space or a volume of **curvy Riemannian** spacetime gas.

What are the ways to transform a manifold of a configuration with radiation **reaction profile A** to another configuration that has radiation **reaction profile B**. Certainly there are interesting applications to consider here in fields of health, mining, nuclear waste mediation, and many other industries.

The truly ultimate goal is printing matter-energy on demand directly from raw ingredients of the universe – specifically energetic electrinos and positrinos. Undoubtedly this would likely go through many stages of technology advancement but the ultimate raw ingredient is clear : spacetime gas, possibly including neutrino and photon flux. Spacetime gas, neutrinos, and photons are raw materials that are present in abundance in nearly all locales in the universe. These raw materials are environmentally safe to consume.

The energy content of a spacetime particle is low, but we can make it up in volume. The cumulative energy capture is the sum of particle energy in minus particle energy out. We can use that captured energy to power the printing process. We can also place that captured energy in the printed product. Lastly, we can use that energy to render any waste product back into spacetime gas or advanced recycled raw materials. For example we could have a machine that powers itself and prints batteries with no observable raw materials, no resource use other than a volume of spacetime gas and the natural matter-energy within and flowing nearby. To be clear, it may take quite an R&D effort to reach this level of technology.

Isn’t the equation of the universe a very simple one? At any moment in time each electrino and each positrino have certain conserved metrics and are acted upon at each point of their surface by the arriving electromagnetic field strength from all other participating electrinos and positrinos in the universe as well as any local direct kinetic action. Note that the center of each electrino or positrino sphere is the source of its electromagnetic fields, so distance never goes to zero in any calculation, the minimum being the Planck radius. Thus the universe simply obeys classical mechanics and electromagnetism including Maxwell’s equations. All other behaviour we have observed and modeled scientifically is emergent.

*J Mark Morris : May 23, 2020 : San Diego : California : v1*

**p.s. **

*Note: A good question is whether electromagnetic fields are disturbed in any way by the presence of physical electrinos and/or positrinos. That is to say, do the electromagnetic fields pass through the body of a Planck sphere without impact. I am going to guess that it is a simple summation of fields at each point in space. And presumably these electromagnetic fields fall off at 1/r^2.*