## Dr. Paul Sutter : Is Space-Time Smooth or Chunky?

I like to watch the “Ask a Spaceman!” videos produced by Dr. Paul Sutter on his YouTube channel. Paul has a gift for explaining complex information in an understandable and often humorous way. Paul also writes outreach articles and in this short post I’ll comment on quotes (fair use) from his article “Is space-time smooth or chunky?” and show how NPQG teaches these subjects differently from GR-QM era physics.

Einstein’s theory of general relativity is the only way that we understand gravity, and through that prickly tangle of mathematics we have come to know something called “space-time,” a four-dimensional structure (three dimensions of space and one of time) woven together into a unified fabric.

Dr. Paul M. Sutter

In NPQG, spacetime is an æther of composite classical particles that fills an otherwise empty 3D Euclidean void space. Time is marked by the energy of particles, with higher energy particles experiencing slower (dilated) time, and lower energy particles experiencing faster time.

In the language of relativity, matter and energy bend and warp the fabric of space-time, and in response the bending and warping of space-time tells matter and energy how to move, something we collectively experience as “gravity.”

Composite particles in NPQG are composed of a neutral shell of electrinos and positrinos (in orbitals) and may include a payload (nucleus). Much of the mass of a particle is implemented in its shell which, for stable particles, must have at least enough energy to maintain containment of the nucleus. As the electrinos and positrinos in standard matter particle shells orbit, they come into proximity with the electrino-positrino orbitals of neighbor shells, which are dominated by spacetime particles. Due to electromagnetic fields emitted by the electrinos and positrinos they exert a force upon each other which results in an ebb and flow of energy between them. Thus we see that spacetime particle shells implement the mechanism which is the transmission medium for gravity.

In order for the math of general relativity to work, this fabric of space-time has to be absolutely smooth at the tiniest of scales. No matter how far you zoom in, space-time will always be as wrinkle-free as a recently ironed shirt. No holes, no tears, no tangles. Just pure, clean smoothness. Without this smoothness, the mathematics of gravity simply break down.

The reality of nature is quite different than Paul describes here. Here are the differences.

• Space itself is simply a void 3D Euclidean volume. It is smooth. There are no constituents. Particles move continuously through space.
• Spacetime is implemented with an æther of particles that are composed of electrinos and positrinos. Since electrinos and positrinos are discrete fundamental particles they are ‘chunky’.
• Electrinos and positrinos move through space in a continuous path. They do not instantaneously jump from one place to another.
• Emergent higher level patterns of electrinos and positrinos may exhibit quantum behaviour where the pattern they form may transition from one energy level to another.
• A good example is a photon which is a shell-only composite particle and where certain discrete frequencies and the corresponding wavelengths are stable. Each of these stable configurations corresponds to a wave equation of the electrinos and positrinos in the shell. Still, when a photon experiences an energy change, the electrinos and positrinos move continuously through space as they transition from one wave equation to another.

But general relativity isn’t the only thing telling us about space-time. We also have quantum mechanics (and its successor, quantum field theory). In the quantum world, everything microscopic is ruled by random chance and probabilities. Particles can appear and disappear at a moment’s notice (and usually even less time than that). Fields can wiggle and vibrate with a will all their own. And nothing can ever be known for certain.

This is where quantum mechanics and quantum field theory are wrong. Neither of these theories understands the classical foundation of the fields and particles they study. What they see as clouds of probabilities and uncertainty is actually the set of electrinos and positrinos executing their wave equations while bathed in a sea of spacetime æther particles that carry an alternating ebb and flow of gravitational energy waves.

GR-QM era science believe that particles appear and disappear at a moment’s notice relative to the quantum vacuum. Appearance is called “pair production” and disappearance is called “annihilation.” However, in NPQG we understand that GR-QM era science has not yet understood spacetime to be an æther of composite particles that are formed from classical fundamental particles, the electrino and positrino. Since QM can not detect spacetime æther, they attribute these affects to some kind of vague mysterious mechanism of the quantum vacuum. In reality, it is simply reactions where energy causes spacetime particles to react and form the more observable standard matter particles, or vice-versa a reaction where standard matter particles react and one of the products of the reaction is a low energy spacetime particle.

The reason nothing can ever be known for certain is that we never know when some extraneous input to a particle reaction may occur. A reaction may have a very well defined set of inputs and outputs and energy levels and so on, but if there is a large fluctuation in spacetime æther temperature that arrives at the moment of the reaction, that incident energy wave can change the outcome of the reaction.

And so, as the physicist John Wheeler pointed out in 1960, if we were to zoom down to the tiniest possible scale, something called the Planck scale, which is about a billionth of a billionth of a billionth of a billionth of a meter, space-time shouldn’t appear smooth at all. Instead, it should be a roiling, boiling mess — an angry frothing soup of particles, constantly tearing holes in space-time and patching them up again before anyone in the macroscopic world notices.

This is true, but the reason is because spacetime æther is made of composite electrino/positrino particles that fill continuous space. The spacetime æther is like an ocean where there are energy waves flowing in many directions. Sometimes there is a peak of energy and the spacetime æther particles react and produce standard matter particles. If those particles are not stable they can quickly react again and transform back into spacetime æther particles.

If space-time really is frothy and bubbling, then this should affect anything passing through space-time. For example, a beam of light going along its merry way will encounter all sorts of microscopic bumps and jostles — a Planckian gravel path rather than a smooth highway.

Sometimes those little jostles will give the light a boost, nudging up its energy level, and sometimes the light will encounter a little speed bump, slowing it down. The net effect is that light traveling through a frothy space-time will slowly spread out in energy.

A photon moving through spacetime æther will pass by many discrete (chunky) spacetime æther particles. Fortunately, interactions that deflect photons or reduce photon energy are infrequent and photons can travel for billions of years and still be detected by science instruments. That said, photons do lose energy as they travel and we call that effect ‘redshift’ because the frequency is reduced and the wavelength is elongated in the same direction as reading the spectrum from blue light towards red light. How do the photons lose energy? GR-QM era science attributes the loss to the universal expansion of spacetime which has resulted from a one time inflationary Big Bang. In NPQG we understand that there was no one time inflationary Big Bang, and instead that the correct understanding of nature reveals many parallel and intermittent galaxy local inflationary mini-bangs as the Planck particle cores of SMBH breach the event horizon at the poles and emit Planck plasma jets. So NPQG understands expansion on a galaxy local basis and as a result adjacent galaxies expand into each other and there is no overall net universe scale expansion trend. There certainly may be galaxy local differences in expansion rate and there may be spacetime æther winds, but the magnitude of these effects is apparently very small.

Paul’s article goes on to describe an experiment that attempted to detect the frothiness or chunkiness of spacetime with light from a source believed to be 18 billion light years away. The experiment was designed to detect the spread of photons that would be caused by the frothiness. Of course this assumes that the interactions between photons and spacetime result in some small deflections that build up over long distances. The experiment did not find any sign of such spread. There could be many reasons for this, but I suspect that the reason is a lack of understanding of how photon energy is redshifted as it travels through spacetime æther. If NPQG is correct then those energy transactions are virtually non-scattering.

J Mark Morris : San Diego : California