Recipes—as with virtually anything else in our world—change with time. You wouldn’t dream of making that green bean aspic from your grandmother’s old recipes, but with a few touches of modernization, it becomes a perfectly functional Thanksgiving side dish. Like the green bean aspic, the current recipe for nature and the universe is one that seems confusing, lacking in purpose, and even nonsensical at times. Why did your grandmother decide to include frankfurters in that aspic? Why are we using outdated and unnecessarily abstract models to guide our studies of the universe? Both questions lead to equal befuddlement. Yet remaking a recipe does not need to be difficult. In either case, it is best to start with the basics and avoid overcomplicating things. Use a conservative collection of ingredient types, but retain the flexibility to increase quantities in ample supply—infinite supply, if we are discussing the matter on a universal level. From there, you develop a recipe that is understandable, logical, and comprehensive in the modern era.

Our recipe is called “Neoclassical Physics and Quantum Gravity.” The degree to which this narrative describes the reality of nature is unknown, but at a minimum it generates insights that, if accepted, lead to a revolution in physics and cosmology. In this work, we hope to show you, the reader, what we’ve done so far to modernize the old recipes. At the end of the day, though, there is a redeemable quality of Grandma’s green bean aspic. It is still interwoven into our modern recipe; take that tried and true recipe away, and everything collapses. Its value still must be acknowledged, the progress made recognized in that surely, this aspic must itself be a modernization of something far more abhorrent in the past. The greats before us made significant strides in discovering a wealth of information regarding the nature around us, and that is certainly not to be disregarded, but it is time to bring it all into a contemporary perspective.

This book will imagine a recipe for nature and the universe from first principles with a conservative collection of ingredient types—some of which are needed in ample, if not infinite supply. From these ingredients it will become evident that nature and the universe are emergent and quasi-steady state. A new narrative will explain nature and the universe understandably, logically, and comprehensively. The degree to which this narrative describes the reality of nature is unknown, but at a minimum it generates insights that, if accepted, lead to a revolution in physics and cosmology. That said, a tremendous effort will be required to integrate and reconcile existing physics and cosmology theory and experiments with the concepts and insights of Neoclassical Physics and Quantum Gravity and to establish and verify new testable predictions.

Let us start with space. The term “space” is one that is colloquially vague. Ask one person what comes to mind when they think of the word, and they might start talking about outer space, the universe that surrounds us. Ask another, and they might define it as air unoccupied by material objects. The answer? In fact, each of those is correct to some extent, because space characterizes both of those situations. But how can we define the nature of this undefined idea that we call “space”, something so familiar yet so difficult to put into concrete terms? What, precisely, constitutes the space between and around us?

Something we know, certainly, is that space is far from empty air, or a void or vacuum. Introductory science textbooks will talk about how everything is made up of atoms and molecules. Space and spacetime are not so much a formless nothingness as they are some combination of particles, sometimes interacting with each other, in different ways depending on the circumstances, sometimes producing particle pairs which may or may not be ephermeal, or more abstractly, a quantum vacuum. We cannot simply remain at the surface level of atoms or even of standard model particles; we must continue to dig deeper.

Yet despite our best efforts, until we really understand what is happening, everything will be merely a model or effective theory that works, but without an implementation of nature. This harkens to a principle often unrecognized: a theory or model can provide accuracy within a certain range of scales, but this accuracy may not extend to all of nature. For instance, in Einstein’s estimation, spacetime would be described continuously as a curvy geometry, but this idea falls short because it does not provide any natural explanation for how this is possible. In fact, Einstein’s theory is a mathematical construct devoid of any fundamental understanding of the universe from first principles. Digging for additional complexity is fruitless in the grand scheme of things unless the model we develop is universal across all scales of nature.

NPQG is nothing radical in this regard. Fundamentally, spacetime is implemented by some combination of particles. Yet it is what these particles are, and the effects of their identities and properties, that make all the difference.

What exactly is the foundation for the universe; or more specifically, the vessel in which the universe emerges? To answer this question, we must recall a few basic ideas from geometry, the field of mathematics that was established by the Greek mathematician Euclid around 300 BCE. Geometry describes concepts in terms of coordinates in an *n*-dimensional space. On the simplest level, a straight line can be considered a one-dimensional space, and a certain set of mathematical principles, axioms, and logic may be applied to this line. From any given point on a line, a single number can be used to locate another point on the line, as long as we know the orientation, i.e., which direction on the line are the positive coordinates. Likewise, an example of a two-dimensional space would be a flat piece of paper. From any given point on that piece of paper we can locate another point by two numbers and their orientations, which we call coordinates. Now let’s turn to three-dimensional volumes, which are the dominant geometry evident in the universe. Geometrically, space is a three-dimensional Euclidean volume. What this means is that starting at any absolute point in three-dimensional space, the absolute location of another point in this space can be described with three coordinates and the orientation of the coordinates. A familiar example of this is the well-known x-y-z system of the Cartesian coordinate system. This is simply a development upon our previous descriptions of one- and two-dimensional space; that is, the principle remains the same across dimensions, avoiding unnecessary complexity.

To reiterate, the space which is a foundation for our universe is a three-dimensional Euclidean volume. Space itself is empty, a void. Space does not interact, curve, or stretch. As it turns out, the matter—no pun intended—is wholly uncomplicated. In empty space, we cannot define the orientation of a coordinate system, or the point described by the coordinates (x,y,z) = (0,0,0), or direction, or any measure of distance or volume. It is only when we add the remaining ingredients to our universe that we can complete our recipe, establishing relative coordinates, scale, measure, and direction within space. Let’s assume for now that the void space that makes up our universe is infinite in any direction. The following chapters will explore this assumption in more detail.

One key ingredient of the universe is a volumetric density of fundamental unit potential point charges. These charges come in two types : one has a negative electric charge and the other has a positive electric charge. These unit potential point charges behave, in the typical regime, according to Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism, which were developed by James Clerk Maxwell, from Scotland, in the 1800’s. The modern version of these four equations completely describe electromagnetism at a fundamental mathematical level. Oppositely charged unit potentials attract each other, while unit potentials with the same charge repel one another. Let’s use the term ‘electrino’ for the negatively charged unit potential type and ‘positrino’ for the positively charged unit potential type. At rest, the characteristics of the electrino and positrino are equal and opposite.

Electrinos and positrinos behave as point charges, which are modeled as Dirac delta potentials that emit expanding Dirac sphere potential waves. Point charges were previously considered by science, but due to a false prior, were discarded as a potential solution to nature. These fundamental charges can be neither created nor destroyed. It may be evident thus far that the definitions of the electrino and positrino are, as aforementioned, not a radical departure from the familiar, established physics principles that exist. By defining the electrino and positrino as the fundamental elements of NPQG theory, the complicated concepts of quarks and other particles are eschewed in favor of a simple and unpretentious foundation. Composite standard matter particle assemblies become emergent assemblies of electrinos and positrinos, and this includes assemblies of assemblies, and so on.

Electrinos and positrinos are the sole carriers of energy. This energy comes in two fundamental forms: electromagnetic potential and kinetic. A unit potential always emits a spherically expanding potential, and if it is moving, creates what is called a magnetic field. The electromagnetic forces that attract and repel particles can transfer energy to and from kinetic particle motion. This ability to transduce energy between various forms is essential to many processes in our universe, including gravity and momentum to name two.

Since the universe contains only fundamental electrino and positrino unit potential point charges, it must logically be the case that all other particles found in nature are composite assemblies made from a group of electrinos and/or positrinos. All particles of the standard model of physics, including the electron, proton, neutron, neutrino, photon, and all other bosons and exotics are made from electrinos and positrinos. The electron, proton, and neutron then form all atomic elements of the periodic table, such as oxygen, iron, and gold.

How are composite particles formed? NPQG posits a nested shell core and with personality charges. A nested shell, which we will call a Noether core, is made of three layers of electrino:positrino dipole, each at vastly different energy levels. The Noether core has a neutral net charge. Unperturbed, the electrinos and positrinos in a Noether core travel a path along the surface of an imaginary sphere defined by the radius from the center of the core. More generally, our imaginary shape that is traced is likely an oblate spheroid and at some energies more of a deformable closed manifold that would typically be in the oblate spheroid shape if unperturbed. There can be small deviations in orbits caused by nearby assemblies. More properly, orbits are described by wave equations. More descriptively, we leverage the term ‘world line’ which is used to describing general relativity. A world line is a 4-dimensional spacetime path. However our electrino and positrino operate in a Euclidean universe in terms of the equations of classical mechanics and electromagnetics with NPQG extensions for the physical characteristics of the electrino and positrino so we will use the term ‘Euclidean world line’ or path history to describe the travels of each unit potential point charge.

Each dipole may support two lower energy point charges, one in each polar region of the dipole. If the Noether core has enough energy it can maintain containment of the personality charges for long periods of time, depending on the assembly and the local environment. If the Noether core does not have enough energy for containment, the assembly will eventually decay into fragments. Some assemblies are constructed with Noether cores only with no personality charges, such as the photon and the spacetime æther particle. Other assemblies have both Noether core and personality charges, such as the neutron, proton, and electron.

One of the most important behaviors of Noether cores is that they shrink in radius as they approach peak energy and expand in radius as they shed energy from that peak. The orbital planes of the three dipoles in a Noether core also tilt with increasing velocity from a 3D configuration towards a flatish 2D planar configuration orthogonal to the direction of travel, especially as the velocity approaches the electric potential speed. In more advanced terms, the assembly can more between Fermi-Dirac statistics to Bose-Einstein statistics as a function of energy and velocity. These are very important points, especially as it pertains to Einstein’s theories because the curviness of spacetime is implemented by the changing size of spacetime æther assemblies. Time dilation and length contraction are implemented by the changing geometry of Noether cores.

The emerging universe so far has the following ingredients: empty 3D space, electrinos, positrinos, and energy. It is guided by Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetic physics and classical mechanics adapted for the physical characteristics of the point charges and augmented to fix a false prior introduced by scientists Jefimenko, Lienard, and Wiechert. From these ingredients arise all other standard matter particle assemblies including a particulate æther that implements spacetime and generally follows Einstein’s theory of general relativity.

What exactly is the ‘time’ in spacetime? If nothing ever changed, there would be no dimension of time. Change creates a dimension of time. What can change in the universe? Empty space does not change, and therefore has no dimension of time. Electrinos and positrinos cannot be created or destroyed, and it is impossible to alter their native characteristics such as size or electric charge. The only aspect that can be changed, ultimately, is the position in space of a fundamental particle relative to that of other particles. When we change the position in space of a point charge, we also change the electric potential field stream emitted by that point charge; therefore, it is necessary to additionally consider how the changing position or path of a fundamental unit potential point charge may be affected by other unit potentials or even by self-action. The process of change in the location of a point charge is what we call kinetic motion. Relative to other particles, a point charge initially exists in, and its fields emit from, one position. At a subsequent moment in time, a moving point charge’s fields emit from a different position. Change in position relative to other point charges in the universe establishes a dimension of time as unit potential Dirac spheres propagate.

Time at the most fundamental level is experienced by individual unit potential point charges, but only when they are moving. As we continue with our exploration of the emergent universe, we will see that all point charges in the universe experience movement and therefore time.

We also use the word ‘time’ in a collective sense to describe the group experience of a localized assembly of point charges, such as the particles comprising a rock or a lifeform. In actuality, the individual particles each experience time in a slightly different manner, but for many situations, the collective experiences time so equally that it appears that the individual particles are in synchronization. As the familiar saying goes, “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts”. When approaching the universe on a larger scale, it is therefore more convenient to use a version of time that simulates approximate homogeneity over the environment or situation being scrutinized.

Overall, the rate of time experienced by a point charge or assembly of point charges can vary depending on conditions. From the perspective of a point charge, time can never go backwards, but it could theoretically stop if point charge velocity were to drop to absolute zero.

At the assembly level NPQG also reveals that time is also implemented by the most basic construct in the universe, the electrino/positrino dipole which orbits with a frequency f, clicking off time as a clock. This form of time can never go backwards because it is a moving particle (except perhaps at the Planck energy) that is following its oppositely charged partner around the surface of an imaginary sphere defined by the electromagnetics of dipoles. Time always moves forward for a dipole unless it has reached the Planck energy in a black hole Planck core and stopped moving relative to its local environment.

Likewise, the collective experience of time can vary. You may be familiar with stories of twins where one stays on Earth and the other orbits in a spacecraft and how they age differently. These stories are usually explained via Einstein’s general relativity, which many people find complex and confusing. Fortunately, NPQG lends itself to an easy to understand explanation : spinning dipoles are an energy storage mechanism and when work W is done on them their dipole frequency increases to store more energy. Likewise, when they do work, they release energy and the dipole frequency decreases. The pace of time is related to particle energy. The higher the energy of the particle, the slower it experiences time. If a particle reaches the Planck energy, time stops for that particle. You can draw an analogy that these Noether cores act like gimbals for momentum and gyroscopes for energy.

Even more complex physics deals with Einstein’s concept of spacetime, an abstract, curvy, geometrical entity. But why does this need to be so complex in the first place? NPQG makes matters simple—spacetime is merely a real, physical implementation derived from the aforementioned low-energy assemblies that permeate space. In addition, as it turns out, there is still room for Einstein after all in this theory. These particles create a standard matter background that is generally lightly interacting, which for our purposes, will be termed the spacetime æther. This spacetime æther is composed of low-energy spacetime assemblies that each have a wave equation and combine to form a collective state, not dissimilar from a Bose-Einstein condensate. Due to its properties, the spacetime æther can still implement curvy spacetime and general relativity, but in a physical, rather than abstract, manner. The spacetime æther permeates three-dimensional Euclidean space, and therein we find the answer to our initial question—space is filled with this spacetime æther. Intriguingly enough, Einstein himself had contemplated a physical model of spacetime, and NPQG provides a solution that integrates both Einstein’s theories and a more tangible model.

*J Mark Morris with Athena Dong (editor) : San Diego : California*

*Athena grew up in San Diego and graduated from UCLA in 2019 with a bachelor’s degree in biology. She has always enjoyed writing and the limitless pursuit of knowledge that science provides. During her time at UCLA, she worked as an undergraduate researcher with the W. M. Keck Center for Neurophysics, which helped cultivate her interests in biophysics and the field as a whole. Following graduation Athena worked at a biopharmaceutical company developing antibody therapies for critical illnesses.*

*Athena began medical school in fall 2020, Her hobbies are drawing, baking, exploring art galleries, and spending time with family and friends.*

*Mark is originally from the midwest U.S. and he relocated to San Diego in 1994. He has enjoyed a career in the computer and database systems industry in both technical and managerial roles. Mark took a sabbatical in 2017 and began working full time on a theory of nature and the Universe in January 2018. Since then he continues to advance the ideas and seek collaborators on this open-source research that he calls Neoclassical Physics and Quantum Gravity. Mark’s hobbies include his fruit tree orchard and his electric motorcycle.*