About a year ago in February 2019 I was spending a lot of time attempting to figure out the composite formulas for standard model particles. The particle shell concept was a nascent idea at that time. I thought the work was getting too far afield and I set aside that project to work on other areas of NPQG. Well now, a year later, I went back and the problem was easy now that I have more confidence in the shell model. On this page I’ll include the chart of shells and payloads and go through the process of filling in the squares for known particles. I call this ‘**Standard Model Bingo**‘ because it is fun and exciting to complete a square and validate it with reactions.

*Update January 2022* : *Lots of progress shown in the next two charts!*

I’ve been looking for ways to organize this chart to show the shells. Here is my first attempt.

The particle compositions are interestingly symmetric.

Here is an artwork I made to explore the symmetries of particles with potential shells. It’s imaginative and exploratory – there is no science on shells per se and the ordering of shells and specific composition of shells is unknown. For example, how could we know if a 3/3 shell is one neutral shell or a 3/0 shell enclosing a 0/3 shell 3/0(0/3) or vice versa 0/3(3/0)?

*Update January 2022 : Nature is metal. The patterns are all sorting out now.* *Simulation and mathematics will make everything clear. We know how this story plays out! We know the particles that are stable and therefore we know that simulations and mathematics will validate that reality.*

Spacetime is implemented with a gas of generally low energy particles. Sure there are high energy photons and neutrinos flying around all over, and in the case of neutrinos ** through** everything but most of spacetime æther is low energy particles because we know that the black body temperature of spacetime æther is 2.7 Kelvin and that GR-QM era physics incorrectly identifies as the CMB.

Modern quantum mechanics theory, confirmed by experimental evidence, has identified a great many particles that are considered part of the standard model. Any particle can have a reaction when it collides with another particle. These reactions often cause a particle to decay into other particles which may then react with still other particles to create a new particle. The physics community documents all of these particles, reactions, and decays via the Particle Data Guide, which was originally a book, but now is also available as a web site (http://pdg.lbl.gov/).

GR-QM era science is not aware of spacetime æther and it is not detectable via experiment because of its low energies. Therefore as we examine reaction formulas we must consider that they may be incorrect. They may be missing spacetime particle inputs or outputs. One of the beautiful things about NPQG is that we can use the known reactions to decipher the electrino/positrino formulations for standard model particles. Furthermore we can also detect missing inputs and outputs when we find an imbalance of electrinos and positrinos in a reaction. Using these techniques we can decode the mystery and develop a consistent system of particles.

The visual 2D art above ties into the orbital ideas and particle compositions. This art shows an intermediate transition point where an energetic reaction is creating a proton (udu) or neutron (dud) and some particles in each quark have been boosted to more energetic orbits but some of the interior orbits have not yet realigned. Presumably the orbits work together in a wave equation to balance electromagnetic and kinetic energy into a stable particle. I don’t know how often proton-><-proton collisions produce pure quarks, but it would be the case that many different particles documented in PDG could result from a collision. Also since the collider detectors can’t detect spacetime particles (which may include low energy neutrinos, photons, and reaction products of those) those are free inputs and outputs available to make the reaction balance.

### 𝗡𝗣𝗤𝗚 **Notation**

First let’s introduce notation. I’ll use standard notation where known. Every particle is composed of electrinos and neutrinos in various proportions. We write a particle formula with electrinos above positrinos.

An electrino ε⊖ or has charge.

A positrino ε⊕ or has charge.

: This is a convenient and simple notation, but note that it is not a fraction. Addition and subtraction only occurs horizontally when accounting for electrinos or positrinos.

: a shell particle without a payload. Sometimes the parenthesis are omitted.

: A shell particle containing a payload.

: Ways to show the sum of electrinos and sum of positrinos in a particle. The square braces are more formal. Sometimes they are omitted.

Spacetime particles g : gravatino : : photon : : electron neutrino: : muon neutrino: : tau neutrino: | Quarks u : up: c : charm : t : top : d : down : s : strange : b : bottom : |

Bosons W- : W+ : Z : | Constituents of Atoms e- : electron : e+ : positron : N : Neutron : P : Proton : |

### Proton

A proton is composed of three quarks, two of which are up quarks and one of which is a down quark. Let’s work through the formulation.

P = u + d + u =

There are some patterns emerging here, but it is premature to be certain. It might be that a proton is a spacetime particle shell enclosing a W+ boson. A W+ boson looks like a photon enclosing the payload of a positron. Recall that a positron is considered anti-matter and QM is puzzled by why it doesn’t appear in nature. Perhaps it has been right under our noses all along, hiding in protons. These are ideas to ponder.

### Neutron

A neutron is composed of three quarks, two of which are down quarks and one of which is an up quark. Let’s work through the formulation.

N = d + u + d =

It might be that a proton is a spacetime particle shell enclosing a Z boson. A Z boson looks like a photon enclosing an neutrino or anti-neutrino. Recall that an anti-neutrino is considered anti-matter and QM is puzzled by why it doesn’t appear in nature. Perhaps it has been right under our noses all along, hiding in neutrons. These are ideas to ponder.

### Beta Minus Decay

A free neutron can decay in a process called beta minus decay where it turns into three particles : a proton, an electron, and an anti-neutrino. Let’s go through the formulas and see if they balance or if there is a missing ingredient sourced from the spacetime æther.

Standard formula for beta minus decay : N = P + W- = P + e^{–} + !v

N ?= P + W-

N ?= P + e^{–} + !v

As you can see, neither equation balances electrinos and positrinos. To make it balance, the reaction must consume one gravatino from the spacetime æther.

### Beta Plus Decay

Standard formula: P = N + W+ = N + e^{+} + v

P ?= N + W+

P ?= N + e^{+} + v

As you can see, neither equation balances electrinos and positrinos. To make it balance, the reaction must consume one gravatino from the spacetime æther.

### Pi Mesons

pi^{–} = d + !u =

pi^{+}= !d + u =

π^{0}= pi^{0}= d + !d =

π^{0}= pi^{0}= u + !u =

### Deuterium-Tritium Fusion

D = P + N

T = P + N + N

He = 2P2N

D + T = 2P2N + N = He + N

We can see that deuterium-tritium fusion balances without calculating the electrinos and positrinos.

In NPQG particles are modeled as neutral shells made from electrino-positrino dipoles with those shells possibly containing a composite payload.

There may be a correlation of shell composition and the concept of spin and the mathematics of spinors.

NPQG Shell Formulation | Spin | Particles | Force MediatedBy Shell |

Empty 1/1 shell | 1/2 | Tau Neutrino | |

A 1/1 shell with payload | 1/2 | Fermion Gen III | |

Empty 2/2 shell | 1/2 | Muon Neutrino | |

A 2/2 shell with payload | 1/2 | Fermion Gen II | |

Empty 3/3 shell | 1/2 | Electron Neutrino | |

A 3/3 shell with payload | 1/2 | Fermion Gen I | |

Empty 6/6 shell | 1 | Photon | Electromagnetism |

A 6/6 shell with payload | 1 | Z and W* bosons | W* – Weak |

Empty 9/9 shell | Gravitation | ||

A 9/9 shell with 3/3 shell | 0 | Gluon | Strong |

One 12/12 shell | 2 | Spacetime particle | Gravitation |

According to PDG decays a wide variety of particles 8/8, 10/10, 12/12, 15/15, 18/18 | 0 | Other constituents of the spacetime æther? |

*J Mark Morris : San Diego : California : February 4, 2020*

p.s. If any readers want to play Standard Model bingo or work through reactions to find missing spacetime particles that would be awesome. If you post your finding in a comment, along with working latex balancing equations, I will add it to the bingo chart and article along with attribution to you. Let’s play! Physics is fun!

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