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Physics

Missing Magnetic Monopoles

Paul Dirac, a preeminent English theoretical physicist, first proposed magnetic monopoles in 1931 as a means to increase the symmetry of Maxwell’s equations. Nearly a century later, there is still no direct evidence of magnetic monopoles.

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In 1864 the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell published the 19th-century equivalent of a grand unified theory, which encompassed the separate electric and magnetic forces into a single electromagnetic force. Maxwell banished isolated magnetic charges from his four equations because no isolated magnetic pole had ever been observed. This brilliant simplification, however, led to asymmetric equations, which called for the aesthetically more attractive symmetric theory that would result if a magnetic charge did exist. Thirty years later, Pierre Curie looked into the possibility of free magnetic charges and found no grounds why they should not exist, although he added that it would be bold to deduce that such objects therefore existed.

Paul Dirac, in a paper published 1931, proved that the existence of the magnetic monopole was consistent with quantum theory. In this paper he showed that the existence of the magnetic monopole not only symmetrized Maxwell’s equations, but also explained the quantization of electric charge. To Dirac the beauty of mathematical reasoning and physical argument were instruments for discovery that, if used fearlessly, would lead to unexpected but valid conclusions. Perhaps the single contribution that best illustrates Dirac’s courage is his work on the magnetic monopole. Today, magnetic-monopole solutions are found in many modern theories such as grand unified theories, string theory and M-theory. The big mystery is, where are they?

James L. Pinfold
Dirac’s Dream – the Search for the Magnetic Monopole

Yet even as of 2020, quite a few physicists continue to long for a magnetic monopole. In the figure below, the bottom left and middle figures correspond to a North and South magnetic monopole, respectively. The top row is representative of electric monopoles, such as the top left positrino and the top middle electrino. The resulting fields from a moving monopole are shown in the third column, where B represents the magnetic field emerging from a moving electric monopole and E represents the electric field from a moving magnetic monopole.

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Forbes

In particle physics, a magnetic monopole is a hypothetical elementary particle that is an isolated magnet with only one magnetic pole (a north pole without a south pole or vice versa). A magnetic monopole would have a net “magnetic charge”. Modern interest in the concept stems from particle theories, notably the grand unified and superstring theories, which predict their existence.

Wikipedia


NPQG postulates the universe as comprised of two types of energy carrying charged particles, the electrino and positrino. These two particles obey Maxwell’s equations, but they only produce a magnetic field if they are moving. A moving magnetic monopole creates the same field effect as a spinning charged dipole. Is it possible that the foundation of the universe is the magnetic monopole rather than the electrino and positrino? I don’t think so, and here’s why: Many particles have an asymmetric payload which is, as a result, charged. A proton contains a positron payload, which is made with 6 positrinos. An electron payload is made from 6 electrinos. This is only possible with the electrino/positrino foundation. It is not possible with a magnetic monopole.

For these reasons there is no such thing as a magnetic monopole in NPQG theory. If you turn this around, the lack of a magnetic monopole can be considered as supporting evidence for the NPQG electrino/positrino dipole universe.

J Mark Morris : San Diego : California : February 13, 2020 : v1

By J Mark Morris

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