Science does not yet understand gravity. Let’s fix that.

To understand nature and gravity, we must reimagine spacetime as a mix of various gases, just like the air we breathe is made of multiple gases. What are those gases? We know that air is made of gases at the molecular level such as nitrogen, oxygen, and others. Let’s imagine that spacetime gas is dominated by very cold, very lightly-interacting particles, at a scale below that of molecules, atoms, electrons, protons, and neutrons. Imagine these particles are all made from a combination of two fundamental particles, the electrino and the positrino, each 1/Nth charge *(I have been modeling with 1/6th charge)*.

**What Gases are in Air?**

“By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.” – Wikipedia

**What Gases are in Spacetime? **

Spacetime gas (aka Superfluid, Bose-Einstein Condensate, quantum vacuum) includes all photons and neutrinos, dominated by those that have traveled so far in the (possibly infinite) universe that their temperature has dropped to near absolute zero Kelvin. The reduction in temperature of these photons and neutrinos has been lost in reactions, primarily with particles in the spacetime superfluid. The gas may also include any composite particles of multiple photons and/or multiple neutrinos that react at some temperature and/or particles forged in some other reaction.

The spacetime gas has a black body spectrum of 2.7 Kelvin. The general relativity (GR) and quantum mechanics (QM) era science has mistakenly attributed this radiation to a cosmic microvave background from the incorrectly conceived Big Bang.

**Squaring Spacetime Gas with GR and QM**

How do we square these ideas with quantum mechanics (QM) and general relativity (GR)? Surely we must find a way to finesse right in between them, because both theories are so successful. Absolutely! It’s all a matter of the scale of precision. GR and QM do well at their scale and where they apply.

The first stipulation is that quantum mechanics must adapt such that each field is strictly limited to one that could be created by a collection of classical particles observing a set of wave equations, the classical particles being the electrino and the positrino, each 1/Nth charge.

The second stipulation is that general relativity must adapt to understand gravity not as pure mathematical equations, but as a *chemistry*, a mix of particles and interacting wave equations that serve to heat or cool nearby particles. The local temperature (energy) of the spacetime gas and its gradient (rate of change) are the drivers of an electromagnetic convection that we call gravity. There is no pure math at the actual level of nature – it is a chaos of discrete particles, continuous fields, and discrete energy transfers. At the foundation, spacetime is a gas, gas, gas. It is a collection of varied particles, each with a particular composition, energy, reaction profile, position, velocity, and so on.

The Rolling Stones

“I was born in a cross-fire hurricane

And I howled at the morning driving rain

But it’s all right now, in fact, it’s a gas

But it’s all right. I’m Jumpin’ Jack Flash

It’s a gas, gas, gas”

**Implementing Gravity**

Every* particle no matter the type, including spacetime gas particles are participating in gravity. Why? Because the wave equation of every particle interacts continuously and losslessly with the wave equation of every other particle based on an inverse squared distance law. Even if a particle’s electrinos and positrinos in its shell have slowed incredibly, or to zero, the particle continues to participates in gravity. *Note: There is one exception and that is Planck particles on the interior of a Planck core do not participate in gravity.

Participating in gravity simply means that the wave equation of your particle is engaging electromagnetically with the wave equation of nearby particles. The degree of engagement falls off as radius squared.

Let’s apply our new knowledge!

A photon is both a wave and a particle. Therefore every photon is participating in gravity. Every photon has a mass, although incredibly small and close to zero, especially a cold photon near absolutel zero Kelvin. Imagine two isolated stars orbiting their binary center of mass in a large bubble of 2.7 K spacetime gas. The** path from star to star** that carries gravitational waves, photons, and neutrinos is slightly warmer than the surrounding spacetime gas and is also aligned with the force of gravity. There are two reasons. First, the energy flow from each star’s particles wave equation makes a temperature ridge between the stars. Second, the photon and neutrino energy emitted by each star also makes a temperature ridge between the stars. Expressed mathematically, for every circle of radius R from either star, the peak temperature of the superfluid will be on a path between the stars. This path is not a straight line path because the stars are orbiting their center of mass of the binary system and the speed of light causes the waves and particles to take some time to reach the other star.

Is it a coincidence that there is a warm and curvy temperature bridge of spacetime gas between the stars? No! Gravitational attraction (convection) occurs because it takes less energy for the matter-energy of a star to interact with the warmer spacetime in the bridge. Matter-energy generally seeks the warmest path through spacetime (convection). Therefore the spacetime gas temperature and its gradient implements gravity, and this is a clue that will help resolve open problems in physics and cosmology.

Here is a simpler way to think about gravity. All particles have a “mass” and are participating in gravity to some extent. Even the very cold particles of the spacetime gas are interacting with their neighbors and transmitting a lossless energy wave. Every photon and neutrino interacts with nearby spacetime particles momentarily. Matter-energy particles by definition exchange energy with all other matter-energy particles. Modeling gravity as centralized point masses misses this *incredibly rich dynamic* that causes the temperature of spacetime particles to vary according to all impinging waves. Has this been taken into account in the search for dark matter and dark energy? No, because current GR-QM era physics and cosmology do not understand nature.

We’ve covered the more typical case we observe, which is gravitation of warm matter-energy through relatively cool spacetime. Things get even more interesting when we start thinking about situations when spacetime is really hot and getting hotter. What happens near a dense object where spacetime is hot? How does matter-energy at a variety of temperatures and compositions interact with hot spacetime or a black hole? Can you imagine?

p.s. One of the discarded ideas in science is that of Superfluid Vacuum Theory (SVT). I haven’t yet studied SVT, but I found the abstract of this 1975 paper fascinating and aligned with NPQG.

J Mark Morris

San Diego October 23, 2019