*For NPQG basics see: Idealized Neoclassical Model and the NPQG Glossary.*

This idea is speculative and it is not completely worked out. Reader beware.

Although GR-QM era scientists assert that the speed of light, **c**, is a constant in spacetime, it turns out this is false. Our measurements of **c** are typically done in low-gravity environments where it has appeared to scientists as though **c** is a constant. In the NPQG model, the speed of light varies based on the temperature of the spacetime superfluid, which itself varies based on the density of nearby matter-energy. Essentially, the temperature (energy) of the superfluid is the mechanism by which gravity is implemented. Another clue to a variable speed of light is what scientists term “gravitational lensing” of light noticeable around massive objects like stars and black holes, based upon Einstein’s theory of curved spacetime. However, now we know that space is 3D Euclidean and that Einstein’s curvy spacetime is implemented by the superfluid in which the speed of light slows nearby dense matter. Therefore, gravitational lensing is really refraction, which is a high school physics topic.

In physics, refraction is the change in direction of a wave passing from one medium to another or from a gradual change in the medium. How much a wave is refracted is determined by the change in wave speed and the initial direction of wave propagation relative to the direction of change in speed.

WIKIPEDIA

Given that the speed of light varies depending on the superfluid temperature, which is also the strength of gravity, how can we determine **local-c **mathematically? In the GR-QM era, **c** was based upon the *permittivity *and *permeability *of “spacetime.” These parameters define the ability of the superfluid to store more electric and magnetic field respectively. Scientists had thought that permittivity and permeability of “spacetime” were constants, but it turns out they are not. Permittivity and permeability are functions of the temperature of the superfluid. This makes sense given that there is an upper limit to the energy a particle can store, given by the Planck energy. Thus as the superfluid particles heat up, i.e., energize, as a function of density of nearby matter-energy, their ability to store more energy in the future is continually reduced. The more energy stored in the superfluid, the higher the permittivity and permeability, and the lower the speed of light in the superfluid.

Therefore we change our speed of light formula from to . This formula change also specifies a change from a universal spacetime constant to a local superfluid constant.

What are the implications of this formula change and variable speed of light? Our first observation is that as gravity increases, the speed of light slows down. This makes sense considering our training on Einstein’s time dilation. However, if we follow this idea to its logical conclusion, it means that if a particle achieves the ultimate Planck energy, then it can accept no more electric or magnetic field. That means that permittivity and permeability are infinite for Planck particles. If those parameters are infinite, then what does our formula say for the speed of light? C would be zero! Planck photons in a Planck core have zero speed. This makes sense. As I discussed in my post about entropy, entropy is zero in a Planck core, there is zero information, and time is also stopped. These results are all new science. In that post on entropy I also postulated that the Second Law of Thermodynamics can be tightened up to say that entropy is conserved in the universe!

A photon is a composite particle with six electrinos and six positrinos. Let’s consider the internal orbital speed of those electrinos and positrinos as they traverse the photon’s wave equation. Let’s make the intuitive leap that the velocity of the electrinos and positrinos in a Planck particle are the same as the local speed of light. Interestingly, a Planck particle can accept no more energy, and therefore it’s permittivity and permeability are infinite. Therefore the local speed of light is **zero** in the Planck core. Therefore the electrinos and positrinos are not moving in the core. They have taken on some kind of structure that stores the maximum amount of energy.

In the Planck core, the zeros for **c**, information, and the rate of time, along with the infinities for permittivity and permeability are likely related to Einstein’s general relativity mathematics blowing up in what has been called a singularity. A physical model with math that in some cases divides by zero is not good because it produces infinities that are difficult to explain. However, now we understand what is happening physically: it is simply a Planck core, which is the hottest, most energetic possible matter in the universe. Yeah, it’s a bit exotic, but it is also rather simple to imagine. We can abandon all those fantastic ideas of wormholes and the universe reduced to a point particle.

Now let’s imagine a Planck particle is somehow exposed to a lower pressure region. What happens? That’s right, ** zing**, that Planck photon is going to take off at the local speed of light in that lower pressure region. Furthermore, the local speed of light may change rapidly as it exits the neighborhood of the Planck core and enters regions of cooler spacetime and lesser gravity. That Planck photon is also extremely reactive and will collide with other photons and react and cool. It’s a cauldron of reactions in the vicinity of exposed Planck plasma.

What happens to the electrinos and positrinos in a Planck photon? Originally they are also “orbiting” at the local speed of light, which is zero in the Planck core. Let’s take another intuitive leap and guess that the orbital speed of the electrinos and positrinos is the key to quantum energy transfers. Perhaps the wave function of the electrinos and positrinos implements a harmonic series of energy steps and when harmonics transfer to other particles, the electrino and positrino orbital velocity drops relative to local c. At the same time, as the photon is reacting its way away from the Planck core, the superfluid temperature is reducing, and therefore the speed of light starts increasing. Clearly there are some mathematics to work out here, but hopefully you can roughly imagine this process.

Is there a relationship between a photon’s translation speed (the local speed of light) and the orbital speed (magnitude of orbital velocity **v**) of the photon’s electrinos and positrinos? Even though measured observational science is both accurate and precise these days, with very small error bounds, perhaps the difference between **c **and **v** is far below the scales of measurement or analysis of current experimental science. There is a lot of scaling from Planck scale at up to the scale of our best measurements of the GR-QM era. Perhaps twenty orders of magnitude. An orbital speed **v**, very close to the translation speed of light, **c**, might actually appear to us to be at speed **c**, if the difference **(c – v)** is below what we can measure. The implication is that there may be certain formulas which use **c**, the speed of light, which should really be using **v**, the orbital speed of the particles electrinos and positrinos. We will examine this idea as we dive further into the mathematics of **NPQG**.

PREDICTIONS AND HYPOTHESES

Obviously the next step is to begin an analysis of equations, particularly Einstein’s equations and the Planck equations, that lead to a new understanding of nature. Which **c** is a **c**? Which **c** is a **v**? We need to examine obviously. Similarly we must look at the momentum-energy equation. **. **Are we missing Lorentz factors in any equations? How do these equations work out to be consistent with the past and revealing of the future of science?

J Mark Morris

San Diego, CA July 2, 2019 v1

San Diego, CA July 17, 2019 v2