There are many previously unsolved problems in physics which are or will be solved using the Neoclassical Physics and Quantum Gravity (𝗡𝗣𝗤𝗚) model. In this post I’ll discuss one-time Cosmic Inflation.
Alan Guth is generally credited as the pioneer of cosmic inflation theory. Dr. Guth proposed inflation as a prequel to the Big Bang Theory which had assumed homogeneity.
As a junior particle physicist, Dr. Guth developed the idea of cosmic inflation in 1979 at Cornell and gave his first seminar on the subject in January 1980. Moving on to Stanford University, Dr. Guth formally proposed the idea of cosmic inflation in 1981, the idea that the nascent universe passed through a phase of exponential expansion that was driven by a positive vacuum energy density (negative vacuum pressure). The results of the WMAP mission in 2006 made the case for cosmic inflation very compelling.
Is the theory of cosmic inflation in the very early universe correct, and, if so, what are the details of this epoch? What is the hypothetical inflaton scalar field that gave rise to this cosmic inflation? If inflation happened at one point, is it self-sustaining through inflation of quantum-mechanical fluctuations, and thus ongoing in some extremely distant place?WIKIPEDIA
No. The one-time cosmic inflation theory is wrong because there was no Big Bang. If there was no Big Bang there was no one-time cosmic inflation. We need to reset our understanding of inflation.
Guth imagined a serial, one-time event and process. NPQG imagines a parallel set of asynchronous processes. It will be obvious in hindsight, but cosmic inflation theory and the Big Bang theory were both anthropocentric. As if this cosmos was created for us!
Dr. Paul Sutter says that there is a real problem that inflation is trying to solve. View “Ask a Spaceman, The Ultimate Guide to Cosmic Inflation (Parts 1-4).” Dr. Sutter also says that while one-time cosmic inflation theory lends itself to a set of predictions, it nevertheless has some weaknesses. Let’s study these topics and compare how NPQG performs.
PROBLEMS SOLVED BY INFLATION
Inflation is proposed as an explanation for the large-scale structure of the cosmos. In particular, inflation provides a causal connection for the isotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Sir Roger Penrose says scientists believe “the CMB is the flash of the Big Bang, cooled down by the expansion of the universe.”
Scientists also believe that quantum fluctuations during early inflation lead to large scale structure of the universe.
PREDICTIONS MADE BY INFLATION
Inflation predicts that the structures visible in the Universe today formed through the gravitational collapse of perturbations that were formed as quantum mechanical fluctuations in the inflationary epoch.
Inflation predicts that the observed perturbations should be in thermal equilibrium with each other. This structure for the perturbations has been confirmed by the Planck spacecraft, WMAP spacecraft and other cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments, and galaxy surveys.
BIG BANG / ONE TIME INFLATION WEAKNESSES AND FAILURES
If you study these ideas, somehow they were weaknesses turned into successes of inflation. It is quite bizarre!
The Horizon Problem
Big Bang theory states cosmic microwave background is leftover light from the early universe that has redshifted by a factor of z = 1090 on its way to our telescopes. Sky surveys of the cosmic microwave background show it to be isotropic (the same) to 1 part in 100000. How do we explain this isotropy for portions of the cosmos that are not in causal contact? This is called the “horizon problem” and inflation prior to the Big Bang has been proposed as the solution.
In 𝗡𝗣𝗤𝗚 there is no need for causal connection of the universe where variation in the cosmic microwave background is 1 part in 100000. With galaxy-local micro-bangs and galaxy-local inflation, we have a Planck process, governed by the same physics, throughout the universe. It is natural in NPQG to expect isotropy.
The Flatness Problem
With Einstein’s spacetime geometry being curvy, it opens the door to the question of the state of universe curvature throughout time. Why is curvature of the cosmos near zero now? Dr. Sutter says if you work backwards the cosmos would need to be extremely flat at the time of the Big Bang. Who ordered that? Why zero?
NPQG has no such flatness issue since NPQG is based upon a 3D Euclidean void space, which is perfectly geometrically flat. There is nothing to explain with NPQG, because flatness is the nature of space. In NPQG, it is the superfluid bubble that implements curvature due to superfluid temperature, i.e., gravity, and now we can restart the scientific inquiry with regards to local, regional, and bubble wide expansion or contraction or fluctuations.
The Monopole Problem
Dr. Sutter talks about how exotic the universe must be as it emerges at less than 10^-35 seconds old with incredibly high temperature and density. By exotic he means that the temperature and density is so many orders of magnitude greater than we can create in our highest energy experiments. It must be in a plasma of oppositely charged particles – specifically protons and electrons Sutter surmises.
This is a feature, not a bug, of NPQG. Galaxy-local mini-bangs cause jets or ruptures of Planck plasma. How much more exotic do you want? The Planck particle is the ultimate of the Planck scale. All standard matter-energy, including the superfluid, descends from Planck particles. Planck particles are made from equal numbers of electrinos and positrinos. Thus perhaps there are all generations of Planck neutrinos, plus Planck photons, and perhaps some more exotic particles ejecting from the emitter.
Which forces of nature are present at the Planck scale? When we talk about Planck particles, we need to emphasize that interior Planck particles are not participating in reactions. They are maxed out on energy and so are their neighbors. Coulomb’s law rules out an electrical field. The magnetic field may be the maximum possible. The weak, strong, and gravitational forces are not present for interior Planck particles. What about surface Planck particles? They are free to react and shed energy. They participate in gravity and presumably other forces.
It may even be possible for single electrinos and single positrinos to be emitted. However, these are not magnetic monopoles. In NPQG, magnetism is an emergent force caused by moving charge.
The Inflaton Field Problem
It is very clear to me that physicists have gone field-happy. It seems as if physicists think any problem can be resolved with a new field!
“Fields are physicists opiates.”
J Mark Morris July 13, 2019
The Seeding of Galaxies
If ever there was a looney tunes Schrödinger’s cat’s litter claim, this takes the cake. Seriously? How the heck can the Big Bang / Inflation Theory claim they seed galaxies?
Compare to NPQG where galaxy-local processes with common physics shape the universe. Galaxies are the dominant process at their scale and need neither an assist from a Big Bang nor a one-time inflation. Also note that NPQG does not make any specific claims about whether the universe is infinite and if so, how. NPQG leaves open the question of the extent and geometry of the universe for further scientific inquiry. The NPQG model itself does not define the universe, whereas the Big Bang Inflation model is intimately wed to the geometry of a single expanding bubble of spacetime. This is an important distinction, because a theory with more degrees of freedom is also more parsimonious.
Note: Is there a Planck maximum for magnetic field?
SIR ROGER PENROSE
Sir Roger Penrose (https://youtu.be/PAdh70yeLmM) candidly discusses concerns with inflation and how new theories attempt to resolve these tensions. Frankly, I do not see any such concerns or tensions with NPQG.
“The thing about the singularity, which means the Big Bang… well, singularity means where everything goes to infinity and your equations sort of give up on you… and you get them in black holes. But the thing about the singularity and the Big Bang and it’s a very, very special character, and this is a strange thing, which cosmologists don’t really come to terms with. And it has this character, that if you stretched it out, sort of uniformly, completely stretched it out, it would disappear.“Sir Roger Penrose
Sir Roger discusses the concept of singularity in the Big Bang and black holes, while he somehow maintains cognitive separation of these as two distinct phenomena that share the concept of a singularity. Sir Roger goes on to say that if you were to stretch out the singularity until it was completely uniform, it would disappear and that this characteristic drives most of physics today. He says that the stretched out singularity would represent the infinite future of the prior aeon.
NPQG can explain this very special character. If the singularity was completely stretched out (if it were possible, which it is not) the singularity would become a surface-only strand, and this would enable time to restart for Planck particles upon their first energy transaction. This would also return matter-energy that had been shielded in interior Planck particles so they may be accounted for as mass in the superfluid and participate in gravity. The natural process for this “stretching” of the singularity is supermassive black hole (SMBH) jets. We solve this in NPQG with a mathematical treatment to allow for mass-energy disappearance while time is stopped for Planck particles.
Here is a summary comparison of the Big Bang-inflation model vs. galaxy local recycling.
|QUESTION/ISSUE||BIG BANG – INFLATION||GALAXY-LOCAL RECYCLING|
|Where did matter and energy come from?||Unknown||Matter-energy ingested by the black hole supplies the recycling process. Matter (particles) and energy are conserved. |
Unknown if/how the universe began and where that matter-energy originated.
|Why does this high energy event occur?||Unknown reason for occurrence when it did. The event is driven by negative gravity per Guth, aka negative vacuum pressure.||SMBH dynamics control the process of Planck particle emission. New research topic.|
|How many times has it occurred, will it occur?||Generally thought to be once, although there are bounce and aeon variants.||Ongoing and intermittent.|
|What is the age of the universe?||~13.8 billion years. |
This also gives rise to concepts of early times and late times, primordial and other such age/maturity terminology.
|Unknown. This opens the door to a far older universe, possibly infinitely old. New research topic.|
|Degree of universe evolution over time.||Very significant evolution: See the timeline for inflation and the Big Bang. See theories for expansion. See discussion of curvature of the universe. See CMB theory. See interpretations of high redshift observations.||Each galaxy-local mini-bang inflation/expansion event is local to a small region of the universe. This opens the door to the idea of a steady-state recycling universe. There is an opportunity for new science to research any ebb and flow of the forms of matter-energy over time at a universe scale.|
|Does it help explain galaxy rotation curves?||No.||Yes. There are new SMBH dynamics that may help explain galaxy rotation curves. Matter-energy entering Planck state causes mass disappearance from the superfluid. Inflationary jets and ejecta decay may have an effect as well.|
|How is galaxy seeding explained?||Quantum fluctuations in the primordial soup.||The emission of Planck plasma via SMBH jets causes concentrated matter-energy reaction regions at the knots and termini of the jets. These may be the beginning of child galaxies. See the work of Arp and the Burbidge’s regarding anomalous redshift of quasi stellar objects.|
|How is Flatness of the Universe explained?||No satisfactory explanation.||Space is 3D and Euclidean. It is not curvy. Einstein’s curvature of spacetime is implemented with a bubble of superfluid.|
|Is an inflaton field required?||Yes.||No.|
|How is the Horizon problem explained? (Causal connectedness of the CMB to near isotropy – 1 in 100000 variation).||Isotropy of the quantum soup prior to inflation.||Galaxy-local Planck process, governed by the same physics, throughout the universe. Isotropy is natural given that every occurrence passes through the Planck phase.|
CONCLUSIONS AND TAKEAWAYS
Inflation is a galaxy-local phenomena that contributes to the appearance of Universe expansion via the emission of spacetime superfluid gas. The process of creating the superfluid gas of axion like particles is driven from the Planck plasma ejecta in jets or mini-bangs from galaxy center SMBH. As Planck photons and neutrinos from the emission decay, cool, inflate, and react they form lesser energy photons, neutrinos, axions, and other particles of standard matter-energy.
The science around the Big Bang and one-time inflation is generally good work, even if it was blinkered. It won’t be difficult for scientists to reframe their theories, models, and measurements towards a galaxy-local process. Furthermore, scientists have a laboratory to observe the intermittent and ongoing Planck plasma jets and galaxy-local bangs and galaxy-local inflation events throughout the universe in active galactic nuclei (AGN) supermassive black holes (SMBH) and possibly other high energy objects and events.
NPQG solves the same problems as the Big Bang and one-time inflation theory. NPQG makes different predictions. NPQG has none of the weaknesses of the Big Bang and one-time inflation theories.
PREDICTIONS AND HYPOTHESES
- There was no big bang as conceived by GR-QM era physicists.
- Since there was no big bang, there was no one-time cosmic inflation.
- The inflation concept can be repurposed to be galaxy-local, and it occurs in high energy events where Planck particles are exposed and Planck plasma emerges as a powerful jet or bang. A typical source of inflation is an AGN SMBH.
- NPQG enables the idea of either an infinite bubble of superfluid, or a single finite bubble of superfluid, or a set of various superfluid bubbles, each with self-similar physics, that may spawn or merge at the surface of each bubble.
J Mark Morris
June 15, 2019 San Diego v1
July 14, 2019 San Diego v2