Does Nature Destroy Information?

In this post I’ll discuss Physical Information.

Physical information: Are there physical phenomena, such as wave function collapse or black holes, that irrevocably destroy information about their prior states? How is quantum information stored as a state of a quantum system?


Regarding wave function collapse, it is not such a dramatic event! It is a routine intermediate state transition between two energy levels which is usually well describable mathematically.

Energy transfers are lossless and conservative, so no information is lost.

Black holes are a different matter. All information, other than information encoded in conserved quantities, is lost as gravity crushes and transmutes standard matter and spacetime towards the Planck scale. Ultimately, the Planck core contains no information and can be described with a single bit – Planck core or not Planck core. However, entropy is conserved, which is an adjustment to the 2nd law of thermodynamics. Not all conserved properties can enter a Planck core. Some conservation must be accounted for with the neighbors teeming to also join the Planck core.

The black hole information paradox is a puzzle resulting from the combination of quantum mechanics and general relativity. Calculations suggest that physical information could permanently disappear in a black hole, allowing many physical states to devolve into the same state. This is controversial because it violates a core precept of modern physics—that, in principle, the value of a wave function of a physical system at one point in time should determine its value at any other time. A fundamental postulate of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is that complete information about a system is encoded in its wave function up to when the wave function collapses. The evolution of the wave function is determined by a unitary operator, and unitarity implies that information is conserved in the quantum sense.


Information is definitely destroyed in a black hole, the question is whether it is all destroyed. Information becomes inaccessible from outside the black hole when that information crosses the event horizon into the black hole. However, whichever way matter-energy comes out of the black hole, it has absolutely zero information. The two ways out are Hawking radiation and Planck core emission as a plasma. Either way, no information is contained. We can assert that some information must have been destroyed. I suppose it is possible for some information to somehow survive for a long time in a black hole without making its way to the Planck core, but that’s a losing battle,


  • Nature destroys information in the black hole recycling process.
  • Information is not encoded on the surface area of a black hole event horizon.
  • The holographic universe concept is incorrect.
  • Entropy is conserved. The 2nd Law is actually an equality.

J Mark Morris : San Diego : California