Can Supermassive Black Holes Explain Galaxy Rotation Curves?

For NPQG basics see: Idealized Neoclassical Model and the NPQG Glossary.

In the mid 20th century several scientists noticed anomalies in galaxy rotation curves, and Dr. Vera Rubin is credited with making the largest scientific advancement that precisely identified a major problem with respect to then current scientific understanding. Was the understanding of gravity wrong or was there unaccounted for mass that could explain the observations? Springing out of this work has been the concept of dark matter and the subsequent fruitless search for signs of it. Somewhere along the line, the concept of dark matter became the consensus theory as if it was the only possible solution.

Vera Florence Cooper Rubin (July 23, 1928 – December 25, 2016) was an American astronomer who pioneered work on galaxy rotation rates. She uncovered the discrepancy between the predicted angular motion of galaxies and the observed motion, by studying galactic rotation curves. This phenomenon became known as the galaxy rotation problem, and was evidence of the existence of dark matter.


It seems to me that scientists imagination was constrained in looking mainly for dark matter with a smaller contingent searching for a modified gravity solution as an explanation for Dr. Rubin’s observations. We know that the Sun converts mass to energy and this effects Earth’s orbit. Why did the scientists not look for a similar mechanism for black holes, especially the supermassive black holes at the galaxy center? Science historians will need to examine who knew what, when to put this timeline together. However, when it comes to black holes, I believe scientists, and Hawking in particular, very quickly nailed shut a very simplified and wrong model of black holes that did not understand the singularity, the Planck core, and emission as jets or ruptures. The historian’s timeline on how this all went down and how the error occurred will be fascinating.

In this post, I will state the case for a new hypothesis related to the dynamics of galaxy center active galactic nuclei (AGN) supermassive black holes (SMBH). This new solution has multiple mechanisms that could plausibly change galaxy dynamics and solve the galaxy rotation curve problem observed by Dr. Vera Rubin and that led to a many decade search for dark matter.


  1. Under sufficient conditions, some matter-energy that is ingested by a black hole can can cause some matter-energy in the black hole to enter Planck particle phase and reduce or cease transmitting its mass via gravitational waves.
  2. Under a different set of sufficient conditions, such as black hole spin or merger with a dense object, a black hole may emit Planck plasma sourced from the Planck core of the black hole.
  3. General relativity does not apply to Planck core or plasma.
  4. Planck plasma does not experience gravity nor present mass.
  5. The mass of a black hole does not include the Planck core.
  6. The emission of Planck plasma via jets or ruptures will immediately lead to rapid formation of very high energy neutrinos and photons which will react and form other standard matter.
  7. This event will be characterised by galaxy-local inflation which leads to a regional expansion.
  8. If Planck plasma is jetted from the poles of an SMBH, it sometimes tends to pool around distant knots or a distant terminus. Along the way, the plasma may have begun to cool into massy particles which are subject to gravitation.
  9. The knots and terminus formed by the jet ejecta, often have the raw matter-energy to evolve into child galaxies.
  10. Halton Arp’s observations of this parent-child galaxy relationship was very insightful, and it deserves to be fully recognized as we re-evaluate our understanding of redshift given the natural occurence of galaxy local inflation.


In a Planck particle core, mass drops off of the gravitational accounting books. A Planck particle can accept no more energy. It has reached the maximum energy level. The first harmonic. Therefore any Planck particle inside the Planck core has no way to receive a gravitational wave. It can not exchange energy with any nearby neighbor particles because they are all Planck particles. Quantum numbers are aligned throughout the Planck core so that maximum energy is stored. This may include alignment like a very dense ultimate battery. The only change possible is on the surface of the Planck core.

Are some or all quantum numbers related to the wave equation and energy storage of each type of particle? This is intuitive given the importance of these quantum numbers to quantum mechanics. How is this implemented in NPQG?

Black holes with a Planck core can ingest matter-energy and the net result is that the Planck core would grow and mass would disappear and objects in the galaxy would change orbits because the gravitational force would drop by the following formula.

\mathbf{\frac{GM{_1}M{_2}}{r^2}} .

For every mass ingested that crosses the phase boundary there is a moment T1 when that mass counts towards the mass of the black hole. And then there is the moment T0, where time stops, where the phase change occurs, where the mass is no longer transmitting. It is as if the mass has disappeared. How is that for emergent behavior? Wow, “nature is metal,” as they might say on reddit.

This also means that the mass of the black hole does not account for the dense matter-energy in the Planck core. Hopefully, science will be able to use black hole measurements to inform a mathematical relationship to the characteristics of the Planck core. Charged or not. Spinning or not. Observed Mass.

How can we determine the Planck core size and energy? Well, I suppose volume would be related to energy. It is a matter of how many Planck particles pack into a sphere if not spinning or oblate spheroid if spinning. Scientists and geometers can also probably determine the packing and orientation of the 1/1 Planck particles. Is it FCC, something else? A mix? Are there blanks, ruptures, tears? Does the core spin differently than the remainder of the black hole? These ideas may also help us explain the curious fact that SMBH masses are so small relative to their galaxies.

We would like to have a science that could predict:

  • when a core is predicted to emit through jet or rupture.
  • how much of the Planck core is projected to emit in a jet event.


The case was presented for a new hypothesized solution to the old problem of galaxy rotation curves. It was shown that scientists have not yet pursued a solution that invoked black hole dynamics. It is straightforward to show how black hole dynamics could easily lend themselves to a solution. Now it is time to see if the hypotheses can be supported with evidence.

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