**PURPOSE**

The purpose of this idealized model of nature is to facilitate *thinking and experiments* based on the assumptions of a **minimal two-particle physical universe**. The hope is that the thought experiments may lead to new insights and potential hypotheses about nature that can be researched.

The model is in development and evolves as new insights are discovered.

PHYSICAL ENTITIES

- Particles : Electrino and positrino. Planck radius. Immutable Conserved.
- Energy : Only carried by particles. Conserved.
- Space : A three-dimensional Euclidean void.

DIMENSIONS (7)

- 3D space : a Euclidean volume. 3D space is the vessel that is permeated with an æther that implements Einstein’s general relativity. The æther is made from standard matter-energy.
- Time : implemented by particle shell energy (high energy = slow rate, low energy = fast rate).
- Energy : electromagnetic and kinetic as implemented by particle wave equations.
- Charge : increments of +1/6 or -1/6.
- Particle : present or not.

CONSERVATION

- Electrino and positrino particles
- Mass-energy
- Linear momentum
- Angular momentum
- Charge (immutable)
- Parity

PHYSICS

- Maxwell’s equations.
- All composite particles are harmonic oscillators and have a set of wave equation solutions.
- Wave equation solutions track the energy balance in harmonics.
- Energy harmonics may be transferred between particles.
- Maximum energy is the Planck energy per Planck sphere particle.
- General relativity and gravity do not apply to a black hole core of Planck particles at Planck energy.
- A Planck plasma of Planck particles may emit via jet or rupture from high energy objects and events. (e.g., Active galactic nuclei (AGN) of a supermassive black hole (SMBH))
- Low energy gravity waves are in constant lossless flux with neighbors.
- Root-mean-square (RMS) gravity wave energy outstanding is related to mass by the
**mass-energy**and**energy-momentum**relations. - The energy traded for inertial mass and momentum energizes the local æther and propagates (at ).
- The force of gravity results from convection in the æther.
- The gradient of æther energy density is the strength of the gravitational field.
- Neutral composite particle shells.
- From an æther perspective the speed of light is constant. (Map 2, Riemannian)
- From the perspective of Euclidean Map 1 the local speed of light varies based on æther energy and its relationship to local permittivity and permeability.
- Redshift: gravitational, doppler, cosmological (galaxy local expansion), inflationary
- Gauge invariance via Lorentz factor
- Four forces (gravitational, weak, electromagnetic, strong).

**Hypotheses**

- Recycling of standard matter (including spacetime æther) through high energy objects or events. In particular, active galactic nuclei (AGN) supermassive black holes (SMBH), Planck particle core, and emission of Planck scale plasma via jet or rupture.
*[dark matter, galaxy rotation curves, anomalous redshift observations, expansion]* - Anti-matter is a reaction ingredient in the formation of protons and neutrons. This solves the longstanding question of where is the expected anti-matter.
*[baryon asymmetry]* - Instead of a cosmic inflation and a one-time big bang, intermittent, independent, distributed, parallel and ongoing galaxy local bangs/jets and galaxy local inflation.
*[universe age, Hubble, expansion, flatness]* - Map 1 Euclidean variable speed of light and refraction given by local permittivity and permeability as a function of the local energy density of spacetime æther.
*[gravitational lensing]*

**J Mark Morris : San Diego : California : June 24, 2019 : v1**