The Local Temperature of the Spacetime Superfluid

Imagine that nature is emergent from pairs of Planck scale fundamental particles, the electrino and the positrino, which are equal yet oppositely charged. These are the only carriers of energy, in electromagnetic and kinetic form. Now add in an infinite 3D Euclidean space (non curvy) and Maxwell’s equations. π—‘π—£π—€π—š explores this recipe for nature and how it emerges as a narrative that is compatible with GR and QM, yet far superior in ability to explain the universe and resolve open problems. For π—‘π—£π—€π—š basics see: Idealized Neoclassical Model and the NPQG Glossary.

For anyone new to the Neoclassical Physics and Quantum Gravity (π—‘π—£π—€π—š) model of nature, please be aware that π—‘π—£π—€π—š is entirely compatible with general relativity (GR) and quantum mechanics (QM). π—‘π—£π—€π—š is a physical model of nature, and is sandwiched between GR and QM. That’s me in the middle, Morris the cat. Which pup is GR and which pup is QM? Ha!

Image result for dog cat sandwich

In this post, let’s discuss the local temperature of superfluid. Einstein’s spacetime is not some abstract curvable geometry, but rather a superfluid of particles, in particular photons and neutrinos, at various energies, but skewed towards low energy particles.

Inertial mass is shown in upper left of each box. Credit: CERN

In π—‘π—£π—€π—š, every particle in the superfluid gas has mass, because general relativity applies in the superfluid and every particle has energy. The inertial masses of standard model particles are known. Masses of atoms are provided in the periodic table of the elements. Neutrinos typically have very low masses. Photons are believed to have zero or near zero mass. In π—‘π—£π—€π—š, photon mass is non-zero, and is given by the energy-momentum equation. However, for most experimental observations, photon mass is undetectable. The superfluid gas contains many extremely low energy photons, neutrinos and axion like particles. The particles in the superfluid gas have near zero mass with their 2.7K black body radiation curve, i.e., the cosmic microwave background (CMB).

Nature has the ability to seamlessly transition through many orders of magnitude of scale. To understand nature you need to think in terms of the Lorentz factor, and think logarithmically. What intelligent individuals perceive or define as 0 or 1 may sometimes be nature at 0.000…001 or 0.999…999. The Lorentz factor helps us understand the relationship of photon speed and energy.

Note: Photon speed also depends on energy-mass flux. Energy-mass flux depends on local permittivity and permeability, which control the ability of local superfluid to exchange electromagnetic energy.

In π—‘π—£π—€π—š, the highest and lowest temperatures (energies), at the ends of the scale, are where phase changes occur. The highest temperatures occur in the core of dense objects, such as supermassive black holes, or in high energy mergers. When the Planck temperature is reached, standard-matter (including the superfluid) will have become Planck particles with Planck energy. Planck temperature or energy is where the velocity of the constituent electrino and positrino particles have reached local speed of light. The tricky part there is that local speed of light in a Planck core is zero! This makes sense if you consider that no more electromagnetic energy can be absorbed. In other words the permittivity and permeability are both infinite.

I imagine a Planck core as a lattice of electrino/positrino pairs. The core can breach via rupture or jet under particular conditions. It must be the case that the jets of active galactic nuclei (AGN) supermassive black hole (SMBH) can be Planck plasma, as this would resolve the tensions in galaxy dynamics, including dark matter. Scientists may consider other high energy objects or mergers and whether they produce Planck plasma, i.e., BH-BH mergers, BH, BH-NS mergers, NS-NS mergers (BH=black hole, NS=neutron star). The image below shows the mid-range of the electromagnetic energy scale.


π—‘π—£π—€π—š models the Ξ΅βŠ–/Ξ΅βŠ• pair particle as a tau neutrino. Remember that an electron neutrino is 3Ξ΅βŠ–/3Ξ΅βŠ•. It seems that nature strips away part of the electron neutrino shell as energy increases. Isn’t it odd to think about taking something away to increase energy and mass?

General relativity does not apply at the Planck temperature. This is where the singularity occurs in general relativity math. The singularity has led to many imaginative ideas, including wormholes, infinite compression and more. However, reality is much more mundane – a Planck particle core forms and it can escape black holes, and of course anything else, under certain conditions, presumably through rupture or jet. Galaxy-local inflation ensues. Inflationary redshift occurs. Galaxy dynamics are impacted.

General relativity does not apply at zero Kelvin. In π—‘π—£π—€π—š, zero Kelvin represents a state or phase where energy is zero. If this state can be reached, then there is a surface of our superfluid bubble. Beyond the bubble in “frozen” superfluid, the only arrangement I can currently imagine is a static pattern that results from charge separation of the electrinos and positrinos.

Could we really have regions of 0 K or near 0 K in our universe? Why not? I wonder if this could have anything to do with cosmic voids or walls? I haven’t studied those yet, but maybe I should. Uh oh, now we could be a Swiss Cheese universe! Cool. More Ph.D topics.😎

We need physicists to theorize and test the composition of superfluid gas by temperature and by neighborhood. Is it mostly electron neutrinos, photons, and axion like particles? What are the energy distributions? That sounds like a whole new physics sub-field. There are ample green field research topics with π—‘π—£π—€π—š.


  • Superfluid is a mix of photons and neutrinos most of which have very low energy.
  • Neutrinos and photons may become shells that capture a payload to create standard matter leptons and quarks.
  • It is known that the cosmic microwave background is modeled very well by a 2.7K black body spectrum. The cosmic microwave background is caused by the temperature of superfluid.
  • General relativity applies in superfluid phase between 0 Kelvin and the Planck temperature, but not at the two extremes.


Astronomers and cosmologists interpret observatons that are both far-away and long-ago as either early universe or location based on the theoretical purpose. This is a big issue! Time or space? It is anthropocentric to assume that observations far away represent a vastly different chronological period of “early time” after the big bang. Since there is no big bang in π—‘π—£π—€π—š, perhaps distant observations may be reinterpreted as sign of a bubble? For example, are large voids or walls in the cosmos related to superfluid temperature? There is new science to be done.

J Mark Morris : San Diego : California : June 22, 2019 : v1

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