Nature emerges from energetic unit potential point charges in a Euclidean void of time and space. What are these unit potentials? NPQG calls the negative unit potential point charge the **electrino**, and the positive unit potential point charge the **positrino**.

Each point charge follows a continuous path through time and space in response to action from impinging potential waves from all point charges, including themselves. Likewise, each point charge is constantly emitting a unit potential wave that spherically expands from the point along the path where it was emitted.

A point charge is modeled as a geometrical point. Interestingly, it turns out that a pair of orbiting opposite point charges have a lower bound orbital radius (see derivation in figure) which establishes a mapping between point charge dipoles and the Planck length and Planck frequency. It is also extremely important to note that opposite point charges can not annhilate one another due to their closest approach limit. As will see, this is a key reason that NPQG does not suffer from Einstein’s singularities.

- NPQG presumes that at large scales, the density of positive point charges equals the density of negative point charges.
- The universe appears to be neutral at large scales.
- It makes intuitive sense that the two densities would be equal.
- Emitted positive potential balances emitted negative potential.

- There are three empirically measurable large scale constants
- The universal constant speed of the point charge potential wave is given by the symbol @. The speed of light c approaches field speed @ in low apparent energy spacetime aether.
- The large scale density of point charges.
- The large scale density of the energy carried by point charges.

If the positive and negative unit potential point charges come in equal proportion, then we are assured that at sufficient scale in the universe the emitted positive potential balances the emitted negative potential. *This is a fundamental law of nature.*

Wikipedia (various)

Potential energy is the energy held by an object because of its position relative to other objects, […], its electric charge, or other factors. Potential energy is closely linked with forces. Work per unit of charge is defined by moving a negligible test charge between two points, and is expressed as the difference in electric potential at those points.

Since unit potential point charges are immutable, and we expect a 50/50 distribution of point charges at large scales, then we also expect equal large scale densities of negative and positive potential in the universe. Therefore we have a net neutral background of swirly potential density which is capable of causing action via force on a density of unit potential point charges. In that situation, what can we say about energy conservation? Does it help us explain why energy is conserved? How does this tie into the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian?

Example : If we think about most things we encounter on earth they are essentially net neutral meaning they approximately contain the same number of electrinos as they do positrinos. Even when we pick up a bit of static electricity on a dry day, when you consider how many point charges comprise your body, the percentage difference between electrinos and positrinos would be miniscule. That said, there are natural as well as technological processes where point charges are concentrated at various scales.

Here are some characteristics of electrinos and positrinos with some detail on emergent assemblies. These topics will be covered in more detail later.

- An electrino/positrino pair can form an orbiting dipole.
- It must be possible to split an electrino/positrino dipole, since many particles aren’t symmetric.
- A photon is a stable configuration of counter-rotating coaxial point charge dipoles.
- Spacetime æther is composed of low apparent energy structures made of tri-dipoles.
- Spacetime æther may includes low energy neutrinos, photons, and other point charge assembly detritus.
- Reaction outcome (or stability) is due to both the assembly configuration and energy, but also the environment, i.e., spacetime æther energy, nearby particles and their geometry, etc.
- Each particle in the standard model is implemented by an assembly of point charges.
- Point charge assemblies follow architectural patterns.
- As more energy is transferred to dense hot charged dipoles, they assume physical configurations that can store more energy. The particles also shrink according to the Lorentz factor which brings charges closer together.
- Point charges store energy in both kinetic and electromagnetic potential forms.
- The energy of each dipole comprising a tri-dipole core may be different by orders of magnitude
- A tri-dipole core bonds with six personality charges, thus making the fermion assemblies.
- Einstein said . How do we introduce v, the speed of the electrinos and positrinos ε⊖ & ε⊕, orbiting in the tri-dipole core?
- What is the relationship of the particle energy magnitudes in electromagnetic form and in the kinetic forms, i.e., linear velocity, rotational velocity of the electrino and positrino within assemblies?
- Local
**c**depends on permittivity and permeability, which vary with energy stored. The more energy stored, the denser the matter and æther, and the higher the permittivity and permeability. - Energy may only be carried by electrinos and positrinos.
- Wavelength is the distance traveled by the assembly in one dipole orbital cycle.
- The penultimate energy particle, just below the energy of the Planck particle, may have the sum energy of harmonics 2..N, where N is the lowest permissible harmonic, i.e., 0x0111…111. It seems like this might be a complicated wave equation. Adding one more Nth harmonic produces the Planck particle with only the first harmonic, 0x1000…000.
- The speed of the electrinos and positrinos in a tri-dipole determines both the kinetic and electromagnetic potential energy stored.
- At high energy and high velocity dipole radius is small. At very low energy dipole radius is small. In between, dipole radius is higher, peaking when point charge speed matches field speed.

What are the considerations for the visual symbology we choose for the electrino and positrino in NPQG?

- Easy to understand, intuitive.
- Indication of oppositeness.
- Minus and plus symbol to indicate charge in some representations.

The classic black and white is one option. They are equal and opposite in one sense: the presence of all visible light frequencies and the absence of all visible light frequencies. Here are example representations. The use of minus and plus signs and/or labels are optional and depend on the needs of the illustration.

Color versions of the symbols use blue and red to indicate charge. In simulations the color will suffice without the minus and plus symbols.

**J Mark Morris : San Diego : California**