Unifying the Four Forces

There are many previously unsolved problems in physics which are or will be solved using the Neoclassical Physics and Quantum Gravity (NPQG) model. In this post I’ll discuss the Four Forces.



All particles are continuously and losslessly exchanging energy with neighbors via an interaction of their wave functions. Frequently, the neighbors are spacetime æther particles. When standard matter exchanges energy with æther we call that the mass of standard matter. Mass is based on the root-mean-squared (RMS) outstanding energy. Energy for mass is the ante that standard matter pays forward to exist. When standard matter provides RMS mass energy to the æther, it causes the æther temperature to rise. The gravitational energy wave falls off with the square of the distance, 1/r^2.

The gravitational force is simple convection.


The weak force is primarily implemented by fragments of photons in reactions. Photons themselves are neutral particles and emit no electric flux per Gauss’s Law. Note that the formula uses the permittivity constant, which is a function of æther temperature in NPQG.


Fragments of photons may have net localized charge, and this is the weak force in reactions. It is weak because it involves only a few electrinos/positrinos and acts at short distance. The fragments are the W’s and Z bosons. 

The weak force merges with the electromagnetic force at high energy.


The electromagnetic force is implemented by the photon and acts on electric charge at the scales of atoms and molecules, i.e., electrons and protons.



The strong force is the magnetic field of the wave equation of particles. Considering that the electrino and positrino velocities are quite high, the magnetic field is strong and gives rise to the strong force. In particular, the æther structure surrounding a nucleus provide containment.


The strong force is used for two separate but related purposes. First to hold nucleons together. Second to hold nuclei together. It seems conceivable that these functions could either be provided by æther particles, or perhaps some special electrino/positrino configuration or shell(s) that function in these specific situations.

Consider the magic numbers of the periodic table. Is it possible that those are related to particular containment configurations. Yes, of course, that seems possible.


Credit: Colby College

Photons have a 6ε⊖/6ε⊕ composition of electrinos and positrinos and have a wide variety of energies and velocities. When photons lose enough energy they join other particles in the æther, with a black body radiation of 2.7 Kelvin. The force unification chart shows gravity beginning near 10-32 Kelvin and 10-43 seconds. It seems that the emergence of the gravity field may occur with photons.


  • During Planck plasma inflation, æther may be implemented with high energy photons and neutrinos and axions.
  • Photons are neutral particles composed of 6ε⊖ and 6ε⊕ .
  • The weak force is the electric field of fragments of photons.
  • The strong force is the magnetic field of photons.
  • The gravitational force is simple convection due to mass heating æthers.

J Mark Morris : San Diego : California : June 17, 2019 : v1


Brainstorming on Electrinos and Positrinos

This is a post of brainstormed ideas. Which of these ideas can stand the test of nature?

  • An electrino/positrino pair is a stable charged magnetic dipole.
  • It must be possible to split an electrino/positrino pair, since many particles aren’t symmetric.
  • Is a photon a stable configuration of six electrino/positrino pairs in the spacetime æther?
  • Spacetime æther is composed of low energy majorana particles which also serve as shells and transmute into other particles if carrying a payload.
  • Spacetime æther includes low energy neutrinos (tau, muon, electron neutrino types), photons.
  • Does low energy correspond to relatively low velocity of the particles comprising spacetime æther?
  • Majorana particle shells have neutral charge indicating that the composite formula uses equal numbers of electrinos vs. positrinos.
  • Each of the shell/payload particle formulas has a stability (half-life, decay rate) that depends on an energy range.
  • Do the relatively stable energy ranges for photons and the generations of neutrino particle overlap?
  • Reaction outcome (or stability) is due to both the particle configuration and energy, but also the environment, i.e., spacetime æther energy, nearby particles and their geometry, etc.
  • There are an enormous number of different local configurations of electrinos and positrinos when you consider all the composite particles of the standard model, collider products in PDG, periodic table, molecular structure, and so on.
  • The open cells on the electrino vs. positrino formula chart may indicate the possibility of new particles.
  • One source of celestial object spin is due to behaviour of dense energetic particles in the core (ultimately a Planck core of charged magnetic dipoles).
  • As more energy is transferred to dense hot charged magnetic dipoles, they assume physical configurations that can store more energy. The particles also shrink according to the Lorentz factor which brings charges closer together.
  • Energy is stored in both kinetic forms and in electromagnetic forms.
  • These configurations take enormous surrounding energy to contain.
  • Does the angular momentum of particles joining a Planck core transfer to outer layers, causing spin?
  • Does a Planck particle core tend to have alternating manifolds of opposing charged magnetic dipoles? Does a Planck core behave like an electromagnetic battery? a super capacitor? Is a Planck core in an HCP or FCC lattice? What is the highest energy configuration of electrinos and positrinos in a HCP/FCC lattice?
  • This may help explain how some lattice faults are annealed out of the precursor to a Planck core.
  • Still, I presume there remain some faults or shifts in the structure as well as alignment faults when mapping the lattice structure to the spherical nature of the core.
  • Do all Planck spheres in a composite particle have the same scalar velocity?
  • Do the shells of composite particles store a different amount of energy than the payload?
  • Is the shell providing containment energy that balances the payload energy?
  • Einstein said \mathbf{E=m c^2} . How do we introduce v, the speed of the electrinos and positrinos ε⊖ & ε⊕, orbiting in the particle shell? Relativistic mass includes a Lorentz gamma multiplier.
  • What is the relationship of the particle energy magnitudes in electromagnetic form and in the kinetic forms, i.e., linear velocity, rotational velocity of the electrino and positrino within the particle shell and payload?
  • Local c depends on permittivity and permeability, which vary with energy stored. The more energy stored, the denser the matter and æther, and the higher the permittivity and permeability.
  • Energy may only be carried by electrinos and positrinos.
  • The shorter the wavelength, i.e., the faster the frequency, the wave equation path length must get shorter.
  • It does in two ways, by reducing shell size, and by varying the wave equation in harmonics of each shell.
  • Is wavelength the distance traveled by the particle in one wave cycle? Is that distance the same as the wave equation pathlength? If not, how are they related?
  • The penultimate energy particle, just below the energy of the Planck particle, may have the sum energy of harmonics 2..N, where N is the lowest permissible harmonic, i.e., 0x0111…111. It seems like this might be a complicated wave equation. Adding one more Nth harmonic produces the Planck particle with only the first harmonic, 0x1000…000. This is also the ultimate phase change where general relativity breaks down, so perhaps all the Majorana particles have decayed by this point and the electrinos and positrinos localize to 1/1?
  • It is as if the shell radius and speed of the electrinos and positrinos represents both the kinetic and electromagnetic energy stored in the particle shell. At high energy the shell shrinks. As energy is dissipated the shell expands.


  • Particle inertial mass is directly related to the energy required for a wave equation solution given the composite particle electrino/positrino formula.
  • The wave equation solution exchanges gravitational energy waves with neighbors, particularly in spacetime æther.
  • Generation II and III fermions have less shell material.
  • Majorana shells particles, undisturbed, are very stable.
  • The speed of light, c, decreases as spacetime æther energy rises.
  • As spacetime æther energy increases, the permittivity and permeability rise.
  • If measured in absolute background Euclidean space, then local c is the square root of the inverse of permeability times permittivity of the spacetime æther.
  • Variable speed of light in absolute space is the cause of refraction around dense matter-energy objects, also known as “gravitational lensing.”

J Mark Morris : San Diego : California : June 18, 2019 : v1