Let’s talk about redshift and its causes from the perspective of the **Neoclassical Physics and Quantum Gravity** model. NPQG leads to an in-depth and insightful understanding of redshift, or more generally photon energy transactions.

Note: This post contains some new thinking and my confidence level is medium as of the first version. When I build models, it’s not unusual to imagine a solution that fits observations, only to come back later and refine it, or worst case, toss it and start over.I’ve noted in-line where I have follow-up questions (in red italics) and lines of investigation to tie-off. So keep that in mind while reading, and if you can help improve the insights, please comment!Also, remember, this is open source development, so it’s ok to put in tentative structure, even if it has to be revised later. Sometimes going through that exercise leads to discoveries that wouldn’t be seen without running out on branches that can’t hold the weight of nature.

**REDSHIFT**

Redshift of electromagnetic radiation. Redshift of light. Redshift of photons. These all mean **EXACTLY THE SAME IDEA!** A photon has transferred some energy to other particle(s) and now has less energy. That’s it! Now, a few questions.

*What is the relevant information about EACH energy transaction?**Do we really understand redshift at the proper depth? *

Clearly science does not yet fully understand resdhift. We do not yet have any science around redshift of a photon per gravitons traversed in a superfluid with temperature T (i.e., energy E, i.e. gravity strength g).

*Does the superfluid drag depend on the parameters of the photon? **What additional factors are involved?*

Photons are really good at exchanging energy. A photon traveling through spacetime may transfer energy if it encounters particle(s) of standard matter. A photon may transfer energy if it encounters another photon. Those are complicated subjects. Let’s focus on the photon that traverses pure spacetime. All that photon encounters is a geometrical arrangement of graviton particles in a superfluid. The graviton superfluid is very weakly interacting, with drag at such a small scale that it may be considered negligible for many processes. But for a photon traveling long distances, extremely small drag will eventually become a noticeable loss of energy.

Science terminology for the accumulated loss of energy is “redshift” which is a terribly non-intuitive term. First of all “redshift” is **anthropomorphic**, relying as it does on the spectrum of radiation that is visible to humans. Likewise, blueshift, is the term for a photon gaining energy. Second, this terminology relies upon the consumer to remember which direction in the visible light scale is towards longer wavelengths and lower energy vs. shorter wavelengths and increased energy. Third, the terminology also applies to non-visible portions of the electromagnetic spectrum which is odd and confusing. It is much simpler and more accurate to simply say reduced energy photon (*redshift*), or increased energy photon (*blueshift*).

**PHOTON LIFECYCLE**

Consider a photon lifecycle. Perhaps reaction energy is transferred to a nearby graviton and it transforms into a photon and ** zing** – off it goes at local speed of light. That photon may experience many energy transactions, both decreases and increases, as permitted by the harmonic trading behaviour of its wave function. At some point that photon may yield enough energy to transform back into a graviton.

*What is the composition and orbit wave function of a graviton? a photon?**Can photons lose energy and become low speed gravitons?**What are the harmonic frequencies of that transition energy level? **What is the minimum energy photon?**What is the maximum energy graviton?**How do these ideas compare to that of “tired light”? *

A photon that is created deep in the gravity well of a dense matter-energy object will experience GRAVITATIONAL energy loss (redshift) simply to escape the object. Then, it will experience COSMOLOGICAL energy change as it travels through spacetime as a function of superfluid outflow, direction, and distance. Lastly, it may also experience DOPPLER energy shift if the emitter and receiver distance was changing. Let’s discuss these three forms of redshift.

**COSMOLOGICAL REDSHIFT**

The state of the art science in 2019 attributes cosmological redshift to the expansion of the abstract geometrical concept of spacetime. However, photon redshift is only possible if the photon is losing energy. Where did that energy go? In the NPQG model, the graviton particle superfluid implements spacetime on top of flat 3D Euclidean space. Cosmological scale redshift is due to a very small scale drag on photons from the superfluid. Not only do we have a small scale drag, but graviton superfluid is flowing outward in the universe. The end result is that a photon may pass by more gravitons than it would if graviton spacetime were not outflowing. Let’s imagine that based on the energy of the photon and the temperature of the superfluid, there is a probability that the photon will transfer extremely low energy harmonics to the superfluid. **N.B. **It is significant new physics to discover that photons can heat the superfluid, no matter how small the quanta of energy transferred.

The cosmological microwave background, which are the oldest and most traveled photons we can detect, have a redshift factor of around **z=1090**. What are the implications? The formula astrophysicists use is **age(then) = age(now)/(1+z)**. Is that formula correct in NPQG? I think so, because the redshift factor **z** is linear based on the linear gravitons passed, if all at the same temperature (i.e., constant gravity). Even if there was no superfluid outflow, there would still be cosmological redshift.

*With this new insight, how does redshift relate to distance?**How does redshift relate to the age of the photon? **How much does spacetime outflow impact the movement of celestial objects?**How can we be sure there is superfluid spacetime outflow? **How did we get into this circular expansion/outflow logic loop?* *Did redshift lead to the idea of inflation?!* *N.B. This is important because it might differentiate between a finite and an infinite universe.**Does this change our thinking on distance and age calculations?*

**GRAVITATIONAL REDSHIFT**

A photon emitted nearby a dense matter-energy object will travel at local speed of light, as determined by the temperature of superfluid spacetime. Spacetime temperature is determined by gravitational energy waves emitted by the particles in the object since mass corresponds to the energy exchanged with nearby graviton particles in superfluid spacetime. Those energy waves contribute a local root mean square energy to the photon. The photon’s total energy is the base graviton energy, the energy from the reaction that emitted the photon, plus the gravitational energy. As the photon travels away from the object and towards free space, the gravitational energy contribution lessens, and therefore the photon has less total energy and it experiences redshift. Note that as the temperature of superfluid spacetime falls on this journey, local speed of light increases slightly due to the changes in permittivity and permeability.

**DOPPLER REDSHIFT**

Let’s consider only linear motion in one dimension. The photon emitter has velocity Ve relative to spacetime, the photon receiver has velocity Vr relative to spacetime. We are considering redshift, so the distance between emitter and receiver is increasing. No matter what, we can be assured that the photon will travel at the local speed of light. Let’s assume the distance traveled is small enough that we do not need to consider cosmological redshift from superfluid drag. How does redshift occur in this case? Each photon must be redshifted either at the emitter or at the receiver. Redshift means less energy. If the emitter is stationary, no energy is required to change the initial momentum of the photon. If the emitter is moving away, partial energy must go towards reversing momentum of the photon which therefore leaves less energy for the photon itself and it is redshifted. Likewise compared to a stationary receiver, a receiver moving away must use some of the energy to equalize momentum which leaves less energy for the photon and it appears to be redshifted. This is a fascinating new way to think about this.

*Is it correct?*

**MULTI-CAUSAL REDSHIFT**

A given photon may experience multiple types and degrees of redshift. Redshift is simply a loss of energy. A photon may experience many energy transfers in its lifetime.

**SPECTRAL LINES: ABSORBTION AND EMISSION**

We also see shifted absorption lines in redshifted spectrum.

How do we explain the shifting of reaction absorbtion spectral lines? Well, first of all, it’s nonphysical to talk about shifting nothing (an absense of photons), so instead let’s first look at both sides of the gap. We already know that redshift occurs. Therefore it is no surprise that the frequency gap is defined by its redshifted boundaries.

What about the shifting of emission spectral lines? In thise case we have an aboundance of photons to shift, and we know how redshift works, so it makes sense.

**AXIAL ALIGNMENT AND CORRELATION OF DIVERSE REDSHIFT OBJECTS**

Halton Arp observed a number of cases of young galaxies and galaxy precursors aligned axially with large galaxy AGN SMBH, but with a diversity of redshifts.

*What causes this redshift diversity? Is inflation of the Planck plasma a factor?*

“An “exotic” idea proposed by Viktor Ambartsumian was that new galaxies are formed through the ejection from older active galaxies. Galaxies beget galaxies, instead of the standard scenario in which galaxies stem from the evolution of the seeds derived from fluctuations in the initial density field. This idea is in some way contained in the speculative proposal that some or all Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) might be objects ejected by nearby galaxies, and that their redshift is not cosmological (Arp, G./M. Burbidge and others).”

Mart ́ın Lo ́pez-Corredoira arXiv:0901.4534

**PREDICTIONS AND HYPOTHESES**

- Every photon causes a small amount of heating in the superfluid through which it passes.
*What are the implications of this hypothesis?* - A new model for Doppler redshift was introduced.
- The spatial distance and photon age depend on the interaction of graviton outflow in relation to celestial objects. If the objects are swept along at the speed of the graviton superfluid outflow, then I think modern physics may have arrived at the correct numbers, but for the wrong reasons. If outflowing spacetime flows over, under, and through matter-energy with very low drag, then
**OBJECTS MAY BE CLOSER THAN THEY APPEAR**. This is an area for further research. - The redshift diversity of AGN minor axis aligned QSO’s is consistent with a galaxy seeding narrative driven by NPQG Planck plasma jets.
- The redshift diversity of AGN minor axis aligned QSO’s is consistent with rapid inflation upon emission of Planck+ plasma.

**NEXT STEPS**

This post has introduced some new thinking about redshift in the context of NPQG. We have learned that the ideas of Ambartsumian and Arp appear to fit this emerging narrative. Yet many questions remain to be answered.

J Mark Morris

June 13, 2019 San Diego v1

With so much riding on our interpretation of redshift, it is about time that we get back question and reassess. Thank you, Mark, for daring to open up the discussion. Imagine the implications of a non-expanding universe! No big-bang! What would we learn from looking at the cosmic radiation from that new perspective?

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