Halton Arp proposed several controversial observation based hypotheses about quasar minor axis (polar) jets of matter and multiple twin galaxies being formed at various locations along each jet axis. A lot of Arp’s work involved anomalous redshifts of these objects and the parent galaxy. Although his observation data was mostly valid, his proposed model mechanisms have been considered and dismissed as not being consistent with modern cosmological theory and improved data sets.
Let’s think about this. Halton Arp did not have a good model to explain his observations, but with colleagues came up with a variable mass model that was later falsified. However, we can explain Arp’s observations with a mechanism modeled by NPQG – the recycling universe with two fundamental particles. NPQG proposes Planck Plasma which cools, decays, inflates and reacts to form standard matter-energy, including superfluid of low energy photons and neutrinos Examining the Arp ejection model we see that galaxy formation and maturation from ejecta is consistent with rapid inflation at jet emergence and a tapering off over time and distance.
The Planck scale is far more important than physicists realize. It’s not just a dimensional analysis. The Planck particle is real in the NPQG model. It is the highest particle energy possible and when in the core of a dense matter-enegy object, such as a supermassive black hole, takes on a crystalline solid form of electrino/positrino plasma, called Planck plasma, where general relativity does not apply. If general relativity does not apply, then gravity does not apply. The Planck plasma wants to escape. Given the right conditions, perhaps a rapid spin or perhaps a large merger, the Planck plasma may burst through and jet for quite some time.
Which of Halton Arp’s observations are consistent with modern astronomy? Are small galaxies forming near the jet axis? Do they have different redshifts? Are there a pair of BL-LAC galaxies with very smooth spectrums and other similar characteristics? Do BL-LACs tend to occur at the terminus of the Planck plasma jet? If some of these are valid patterns, they may be imprints of the life of an AGN SMBH. Imagine the AGN SMBH growing due to ingestion. It becomes massive enough for the core to reach Planck scale and phase change into Planck Plasma. If the SMBH is spinning perhaps the plasma can breach through the crust at the poles and jet. How long does it jet? How much of the plasma escapes in each event? Do small galaxies eventually develop along the path of the jet or its terminus? Are BL-LAC objects associated with jets? This could make for a whole subfield of study.
BL LAC OBJECTS
Trusty Wikipedia provides our first result. We can now say with confidence that we have a new parsimonius model for BL-LACs: Planck plasma terminus. No more bending over backwards to model BL-LACs as being aimed towards the observer to explain the superluminality. Nope. The Planck plasma jet may truly be superluminal. General relativity DOES NOT APPLY to Planck plasma and it pierces the superfluid.
What about Arp’s more general claim? Here is a quote from a 2006 study.
“There is a clear excess of QSOs near the minor axis with respect to the major axis of nearby edge-on spiral galaxies, significant at a level 3.5σ up to angular distances of ∼ 3◦ (or ∼ 1.7 Mpc) from the centre of each galaxy. The significance is increased to 3.9σ with the z > 0.5 QSOs, and it reaches 4.8σ if we include galaxies whose circles of radius 3 degrees are covered by the SDSS in more than 98% (instead of 100%) of the area.”M. Lo ́pez-Corredoira, C. M. Gutie ́rrez arXiv:astro-ph/0609514
It is truly wonderful that the work of Max Planck and Halton Arp contribute to this new model. Very exciting. We’ll continue examining Arp’s artifacts near SMBH jets in a future post.
J Mark Morris
June 13, 2019 San Diego v1
For more discussion of this subject, please see this article on redshift. https://johnmarkmorris.com/2019/06/13/fresh-thinking-about-redshift/