NEOCLASSICAL PHYSICS AND QUANTUM GRAVITY
Imagine that nature is emergent from pairs of Planck scale fundamental particles, the electrino and the positrino, which are equal yet oppositely charged. These are the only carriers of energy, in electromagnetic and kinetic form. Now add in an infinite 3D Euclidean space (non curvy) and Maxwell’s equations. 𝗡𝗣𝗤𝗚 explores this recipe for nature and how it emerges as a narrative that is compatible with GR and QM, yet far superior in ability to explain the universe and resolve open problems. For 𝗡𝗣𝗤𝗚 basics see: Idealized Neoclassical Model and the NPQG Glossary.
The background for our universe is a three dimensional Euclidean void, which we will simply call ‘void space‘ or ‘3D void‘. It is not Einstein’s spacetime. Void space does not curve, stretch, inflate, expand, or do anything for that matter. Void space is non-interacting. Void space does not have any inherent characteristic energy nor ability to carry energy itself. The 3D void is the empty vessel in which standard matter-energy particles and Planck particles may exist. In NPQG we can geometrically consider absolute distance, absolute direction, and absolute time with respect to the 3D void of space, although to be clear there are no physical coordinate reference points in the void. It is unknown whether the 3D void is infinite, but it may be treated so for most purposes of NPQG. It is unknown whether any sizeable regions of unoccupied 3D void exist. The 3D void has no testable characteristics other than the deduction that the 3D void must exist because the universe exists.
A Planck scale point-like particle with a negative 1/6 charge. Symbol: ε⊖ or ε-.
A Planck scale point-like particle with a positive 1/6 charge. A positrino is the equal and opposite anti-particle of an electrino. Symbol: ε⊕ or ε+.
An electrino or a positrino. Symbol: ε. Electrino ε⊖ and positrino ε⊕ need not be idealized point particles. They may be physical particles below the scales of action, most likely Planck scale. They may also be considered as conserved Planck scale excitations for those inculcated in field theory.
A notation for describing composite particles and fragments. Expressed as a count of electrinos, a ‘/’ character, and a count of positrinos. A proton has epsilon notation 6ε-/12ε+. The ‘/’ character is always present, even if there is a zero count of either electrinos or positrinos. The alternate stylized format is ε⊖ or ε⊕. In informal notation, or formal notation after introduction of terminology, the epsilon symbol may be omitted, such as proton 6/12. Although not a fraction, a mnemonic is to remember that electrino count is in the numerator position, and positrino count is in the denominator position.
Standard Matter-Energy Particles
Quantum mechanics is based on a standard model of particles which can carry energy and are often referred to standard matter-energy particles, or matter-energy for short. Standard matter-energy is the basis for all elements in the periodic table and all reactions. The NPQG model goes one level deeper and can express all standard matter-energy particles as composites of electrino and positrino particles.
In quantum mechanics and general relativity, the Planck units are considered to be a result of dimensional analysis, and no claim is made for the physicality of the Planck units. In NPQG, the Planck particle is physical, has the highest energy possible which is the Planck energy, has a Planck length radius, has a 2*pi*Planck length wavelength, and has the Planck temperature. In NPQG, Planck particles may form in very high energy objects or events, such as the core of some active galactic nuclei (AGN) supermassive black holes (SMBH). It is conceivable that Planck particles may form in other high energy objects or events. Planck particles may be considered to be a phase change of dense superfluid that occurs at the Planck temperature, which is the maximum particle temperature. General relativity and gravity do not apply to Planck particles when they can neither receive nor transmit gravitational wave energy, such as might occur when surrounded by other Planck particles.
|Planck Temperature||Planck particle core or plasma||GR does not apply||No|
|Planck Temperature > T > 0 Kelvin||Superfluid gas that implements spacetime||GR applies||Yes|
|0 Kelvin||Frozen superfluid |
|GR does not apply||No|
Composite Planck particles with compositions Nε-/Nε+ with electrinos and positrinos at the highest energy possible, the Planck energy are hypothesized to occur as ejecta of supermassive black hole in a jet or rupture of the Planck core. The Nε-/Nε+ particles include the tau neutrino, muon neutrino, electron neutrino, photon, gravitino, and Graviton.
A plasma of particles emitted from a Planck core during a jet or rupture of a black hole. Planck plasma is expected to be composed of Planck Planck plasma is found in extreme energy situations throughout the universe, particularly in AGN SMBH jets or ruptures. It may also occur in other objects such as emissions from mergers of black holes, and as a result of mergers of black holes and neutron stars. General relativity is hindered in or near Planck plasma because it may not be possible to transmit or receive gravitational waves.
Planck Plasma Jet
A powerful Planck plasma jet forms from a core breach of a dense matter object which exposes in-core Planck particles to lower energy conditions. Such a jet is originated as Planck photons and Planck neutrinos. Jets frequently occur in pairs exiting each polar axis. Cooling jets rapidly decay and react into lower energy photons, neutrinos, and other standard matter-energy. The jet ejecta causes galaxy local inflation as it rapidly increases in scale. Notes: 1. Modern physics says that accretion disk matter-energy is also carried away in each jet. 2. See the Wikipedia article on radio galaxies.
Planck Plasma Bang
A catastrophic core breach of a dense matter object which exposes in-core Planck plasma to lower energy conditions in a chaotic matter that leads to turbulent explosion. This is not “The Big Bang”. A Planck plasma bang is typically localized within a galaxy. Such a bang causes rapid galaxy local inflation.
Wave Equation Solution Set
Energy is stored and transferred in harmonics of the wave equation solution set for each particle. The solution set may include changes in composition and structure of the particle. For example, it is conceivable, that on the route towards becoming a Planck particle, that a lower energy photon with a 6ε⊖/6ε⊕ formula may transform into two 3ε⊖/3ε⊕ particles, which is also the composition of a neutrino or an anti-neutrino. Perhaps on the path to becoming a Planck particle core or plasma, a 3ε⊖/3ε⊕ particle could split into three ε⊖/ε⊕ pairs.
Superfluid Gas Particle
In NPQG, the superfluid gas of spacetime is modeled as a mix of neutral particles, particularly photons and neutrinos. Spacetime gas is dominated by low energy particles and the overall superfluid has a black body spectrum of 2.7 K, i.e., the cosmic microwave background (CMB).
A composite particle with a formula of 6ε-/6ε.
The rapid increase in geometrical scale of Planck plasma as it emits energy, reacts, and cools. In NPQG, inflation begins when in-core Planck particles are exposed to cooler surroundings via a jet or other core breach. Note: There is no single Big Bang in NPQG. Instead, the perpetual and intermittent emission of Planck plasma throughout the cosmos replaces the concept of the Big Bang.
Superfluid Gas (formerly conceived of as Einstein’s spacetime)
Superfluid is defined by the regions of the 3D void (3D Euclidean space) which are permeated by an extremely weakly interacting superfluid gas of standard matter particles and thought to be mostly composed of low energy photons and neutrinos. Superfluid is material and contains energy, and is modeled as a black body with a 2.7 K black body spectrum consistent with measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The superfluid geometry is experimentally unknown, yet it may be helpful to imagine a dense foam or face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice. The terminologies “vacuum of free space” and “quantum vacuum” are prior era terms that map to superfluid spacetime gas. Which regions of the 3D void are not superfluid gas? Planck particle cores, jets, and bangs are not superfluid. The immediate region beyond our cosmos (if it is finite) is not superfluid. It may be possible that there are other superfluid bubbles elsewhere in the 3D void.
Scientists of the GR-QM era believe that the Universe is expanding based upon redshift readings. However, there is reason to believe science does not fully understand redshift. This makes the idea of expansion questionable. There are really two possibilities. One possibility is the outflow of superfluid gas from Planck plasma emissions from every active galaxy towards the surface of a spherical cosmos, balanced by the inflow of standard matter-energy. It is possible that the net flow rates may fluctuate in magnitude and direction. Another possibility is that redshift observations have a different set of root causes, including non-linear redshift. In NPQG we’ll only use the word expansion in reference to the GR-QM era while this tension is explored.
Superfluid Bubble Surface
Is our region of superfluid gas finite, infinite, or one of many bubbles? If the superfluid gas is finite then we may hypothesize a spherical superfluid bubble with a surface boundary. Beyond the surface is unknown but could possibly be 3D void, 3D void with clumps of superfluid gas and other standard matter, or a phase change to frozen superfluid at zero or near-zero energy. The surface of the bubble is modeled as a spherical shell where very cold superfluid structures decay into residual fragments with low energy that may react along with photons to form standard matter-energy and begin the inexorable gravitational journey back into the bubble. Eventually enough energy and matter would build up to create Hydrogen, and from there stellar nurseries, and the interior layers of the bubble surface may be an active source of matter-energy.
A composite particle with a payload of 6ε-/ in a 3ε-/3ε+ shell. The anti-electron, or positron, has a formula of /6ε+ also in a 3ε-/3ε+ shell.
A composite particle with a formula of 6ε-/12ε+ in a 9ε-/9ε+ gravitino shell. The proton may also be considered as a gravitino encapsulating a W+ boson. A W+ boson may in turn be considered as a photon encapsulating a positron. Note: NPQG has no missing anti-matter.
A composite particle with a formula of 3ε-/3ε+. The electron anti-neutrino has the same formula. Neutrinos are Majorana particles.
A composite particle with a formula of 9ε-/9ε+ in a 9ε-/9ε+ gravitino shell. A neutron is a gravitino encapsulating a Z boson. In turn a Z boson is a photon encapsulating an electron neutrino. Note: NPQG has no missing anti-matter.
Common fragments of protons and neutrons exploded in a collider or high energy event. Each quark type defined in the standard model has a specific electrino/positrino formula. Quarks are encapsulated in 3/3, 2/2, and 1/1 shells corresponding to Generation I, II, and III respectively.
W+, W-, and Z Bosons
Each of these bosons is encapsulated in a photon shell (or double neutrino?). A W+ boson might be considered a neutrino encapsulating an electron. A W- boson might be considered as a neutrino encapsulating a positron. A Z boson might be considered as a photon encapsulating a neutrino, or vice versa.
Exotic Composite Particles and other Fragments
See the Particle Data Group data book for the myriad known exotic particles, lifetimes, characteristics. Each has a specific electrino/positrino formula and configuration. There may be unknown fragments yet to be discovered. Generally these are high-energy and short-lived particles.
Generation I fermions have a 3ε-/3ε+ electron neutrino shell.
Generation II fermions have a 2ε-/2ε+ muon neutrino shell.
Generation III fermions have a 1ε-/1ε+ tau neutrino shell.
A reaction between photons that creates a fermion and anti-fermion. Epsilon particles and energy are conserved, as always.
The root mean square of the energy flux wave exchanged between shells of standard matter-energy particles. This energy wave spreads out spherically through the superfluid.
The force of gravity is caused by convection of standard-matter energy due to the temperature of the superfluid spacetime gas. The temperature of superfluid gas increases with proximity to dense standard matter-energy.
The spin of electrinos and positrinos in a particle causes it to behave like a charged magnetic dipole and create magnetism. The magnetic field of particle shells is typically strong as the particle is traveling near the local speed of light and the Lorentz factor comes in to play.
The charge of electrinos and positrinos in particle shells, especially in the 2.7K CMB superfluid gas leads to a weak force. It is only when there is a local discontinuity, i.e., a reaction, that the weak force even comes in to play. Even then it is a small local charge compared to distant protons and electrons. So, sometimes, it rulez.
TERMS USED ONLY IN REFERENCE TO THE GR-QM ERA OF PHYSICS
NPQG explains galaxy rotation curves as an outcome of mass conversion to Planck particles that do not participate in gravity, then upon jetting inflating, decaying, and reacting as photons, neutrinos, and other standard matter-energy. The galaxy local inflation of the superfluid of photons and neutrinos is also expected to impact galaxy rotation curves.
The energy of superfluid and the outflow of the superfluid are the causes for the phenomenon targed by dark energy theory.
NPQG is a model of a recycling universe with no known beginning nor end. The concept of the Big Bang is replaced with perpetual and intermittent Planck plasma emission throughout the cosmos, and especially from AGN SMBH.
The Big Bang theory proposes an initial explosive event that creates the universe. The initial explosion is immediately preceded by cosmic inflation that is faster than the speed of light. However, since there is no Big Bang in NPQG, there is no cosmic inflation. However, the science of inflation in general will be reframed around Planck plasma emissions.
There is no missing anti-matter in NPQG. Anti-matter is largely captured as the payload inside protons and neutrons. Free anti-matter quickly reacts and the reaction products are photons, and other standard matter-energy. Epsilon particles are indestructible and are conserved in all reactions.
This term from the Big Bang era is obsolete in NPQG. Any writings that use this term or other euphemisms that imply a time relative to the Big Bang (e.g., “early time,” “beginning of the universe,” “primordial,” “late time,” etc.) should be re-evaluated and re-framed.
An ill-defined term related to general relativity mathematics producing infinites in a black hole. Instead, NPQG defines a phase change from dense standard matter-energy into Planck particles and this is where general relativity does not apply. Under certain conditions, Planck particles may escape from black holes because they are not subject to the gravity of general relativity.
Many Worlds Interpretation
Vacuum, Quantum Vacuum
- AGN : Active galactic nuclei
- BB : Big Bang
- BBIT : Big Bang inflation theory
- BH : black hole
- CMB : cosmic microwave background
- ε⊖ or ε- : electrino
- ε⊕ or ε+ : positrino
- FCC : face-centered cubic
- g : gravatino
- G : Graviton
- GR : general relativity
- N : neutron
- NPQG : Neoclassical Physics and Quantum Gravity
- NS : neutron star
- P : proton
- QM : quantum mechanics
- S : entropy
- SM : standard model
- SMBH : supermassive black hole
J Mark Morris : San Diego : California : 2018 – 2020