3D Euclidean Void
The background for our universe is a three dimensional Euclidean void, which we will simply call ‘void space‘ or ‘3D void‘. It is not Einstein’s spacetime. Void space does not curve, stretch, inflate, expand, or do anything for that matter. Void space is non-interacting. Void space does not have any inherent characteristic energy nor ability to carry energy itself. Electric and magnetic fields created by electrinos and positrinos can pass through void space. The 3D void is the empty vessel in which standard matter-energy particles and Planck particles may exist. In NPQG we can geometrically consider absolute distance, absolute direction, and absolute time with respect to the 3D void of space, although to be clear there are no physical coordinate reference points in the void. It is unknown whether the 3D void is infinite, but it may be treated so for most purposes of NPQG. It is unknown whether any sizeable regions of unoccupied 3D void exist. The 3D void has no testable characteristics other than the deduction that the 3D void must exist because the universe exists.
An immutable Planck radius particle with a negative 1/6 charge. Symbol: ε⊖ or ε-.
An immutable Planck radius particle with a positive 1/6 charge. A positrino is the equal and opposite anti-particle of an electrino. Symbol: ε⊕ or ε+.
Planck Radius Sphere
An electrino or a positrino. Symbol: ε. Electrino ε⊖ and positrino ε⊕ need are physical particles with a Planck radius and thus a size far below the exploratory scale of GR-QM era physics. Electrinos and positrinos may also be considered as conserved Planck radius excitations for those inculcated in field theory. Planck spheres are immutable.
Planck Sphere Notation
A notation for describing composite particles and fragments. Expressed as a count of electrinos, a ‘/’ character, and a count of positrinos. A proton has notation 6ε-/12ε+. The ‘/’ character is always present, even if there is a zero count of either electrinos or positrinos. The alternate stylized format is ε⊖ or ε⊕. In informal notation, or formal notation after introduction of terminology, the symbol may be omitted, such as proton 6/12. Although not a fraction, a mnemonic is to remember that electrino count is in the numerator position, and positrino count is in the denominator position.
Standard Matter-Energy Particles
Quantum mechanics is based on a standard model of particles which can carry energy and are often referred to standard matter-energy particles, or matter-energy for short. Standard matter-energy is the basis for all elements in the periodic table and all reactions. The NPQG model goes one level deeper and can express all standard matter-energy particles as composites of electrino and positrino particles.
In quantum mechanics and general relativity, the Planck units are considered to be a result of dimensional analysis, and no claim is made for the physicality of the Planck units. In NPQG, the Planck particle is physical, has the highest energy possible which is the Planck energy, has a Planck length radius, has a 2*pi*Planck length wavelength, and has the Planck temperature. In NPQG, Planck particles may form in very high energy objects or events, such as the core of some active galactic nuclei (AGN) supermassive black holes (SMBH). It is conceivable that Planck particles may form in other high energy objects or events. Planck particles may be considered to be a phase change of dense spacetime æther that occurs at the Planck temperature, which is the maximum particle temperature. General relativity and gravity do not apply to Planck particles when they can neither receive nor transmit gravitational wave energy, such as might occur when surrounded by other Planck particles.
|Planck Energy||Planck particle core or plasma||GR does not apply||No|
|Planck Energy > E > 0||Spacetime æther that implements Einstein’s spacetime||GR applies||Yes|
|0 Energy||Decayed or Frozen æther?|
|GR does not apply||No|
Composite Planck particles with formulas Nε-/Nε+ with electrinos and positrinos at the highest energy possible, the Planck energy are hypothesized to occur as ejecta of supermassive black hole in a jet or rupture of the Planck core. The Nε-/Nε+ particles include the tau neutrino, muon neutrino, electron neutrino, photon, and the spacetime æther particle.
A plasma of particles emitted from a Planck core during a jet or rupture of a black hole. Planck plasma is expected to be composed of particles at or about the Planck energy. Planck plasma is found in extreme energy situations throughout the universe, particularly in AGN SMBH jets or ruptures. It may also occur in other objects such as emissions from mergers of black holes, and as a result of mergers of black holes and neutron stars. General relativity is hindered in or near Planck plasma because it may not be possible to transmit or receive gravitational waves. Furthermore a Planck core would shield some forms of mass transmission.
Planck Plasma Jet
A powerful Planck plasma jet forms from a core breach of a dense matter object which exposes in-core Planck particles to lower energy conditions. Such a jet is originated as Planck photons and Planck neutrinos and perhaps Planck energy spacetime æther particles. Jets frequently occur in pairs exiting each polar axis. Cooling jets rapidly decay and react into lower energy photons, neutrinos, spacetime æther and other standard matter-energy. The jet ejecta causes galaxy local inflation as it rapidly increases in scale. Notes: 1. Modern physics says that accretion disk matter-energy is also carried away in each jet. 2. See the Wikipedia article on radio galaxies.
Planck Plasma Mini-Bang
A catastrophic core breach of a dense matter object which exposes in-core Planck plasma to lower energy conditions in a chaotic matter that leads to turbulent explosion. This is not “The Big Bang”. A Planck plasma mini-bang is typically localized within a galaxy. Such a mini-bang causes rapid galaxy local inflation.
Wave Equation Solution Set
Energy is stored and transferred in harmonics of the wave equation solution set for each particle. The solution set may include changes in composition and structure of the particle. For example, it is conceivable, that on the route towards becoming a Planck particle, that a lower energy photon with a 6ε⊖/6ε⊕ formula may transform into two 3ε⊖/3ε⊕ particles, which is also the composition of a neutrino or an anti-neutrino. Perhaps on the path to becoming a Planck particle core or plasma, a 3ε⊖/3ε⊕ particle could split into three ε⊖/ε⊕ pairs.
Spacetime Æther Particle
In NPQG, the æther of spacetime is modeled as neutral composite particles. Spacetime æther is dominated by low energy particles and the overall æther has a black body spectrum of 2.7 K, i.e., the cosmic microwave background (CMB).
A composite particle with a formula of 6ε-/6ε.
The rapid increase in geometrical scale of Planck plasma as it emits energy, reacts, and cools. In NPQG, inflation begins when in-core Planck particles are exposed to cooler surroundings via a jet or other core breach. Note: There is no single Big Bang in NPQG. Instead, the perpetual and intermittent emission of Planck plasma throughout the cosmos replaces the concept of the Big Bang. The galaxy local inflation causes expansion of spacetime æther in the vicinity of each active galaxy. The expansion proceeds until it encounters spacetime æther expanding from other galaxies.
Spacetime Æther (formerly conceived of as Einstein’s spacetime)
Spacetime æther is defined by the regions of the 3D void (3D Euclidean space) which are permeated by an extremely weakly interacting æther of spacetime particles. Spacetime æther is material and contains energy, and is modeled as a black body with a 2.7 K black body spectrum consistent with measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The æther geometry is experimentally unknown, yet it may be helpful to imagine a gas, or perhaps a dense foam or face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice forming at certain energy levels. The terminologies “vacuum of free space” and “quantum vacuum” are GR-QM era terms that map to spacetime æther. Which regions of the 3D void are not æther? Planck particle cores, jets, and mini-bangs are not spacetime æther.
Scientists of the GR-QM era believe that the Universe is expanding based upon redshift readings. However, the improved model of NPQG shows that galaxy local inflationary mini-bangs lead to galaxy local expansion of spacetime æther. The gas expands locally until it encounters gas expanding from another galaxy. The outflow of æther from Planck plasma emissions from every active galaxy is typically somewhat balanced by the inflow of standard matter-energy. It is possible that the net flow rates may fluctuate in magnitude and direction or even mix with other galaxies. Since expansion of space proceeds at about 7% per billion years it takes about 13.8B years for spacetime æther to migrate from the SMBH jet event to the border of the galaxy with neighbors.
Spacetime Æther Extent
The extent of the spacetime æther is unknown and presumed infinite. There are other possibilities that can be imagined.
A composite particle with a payload of 6ε-/ in a 3ε-/3ε+ shell. The anti-electron, or positron, has a formula of /6ε+ also in a 3ε-/3ε+ shell.
A composite particle with a formula of 6ε-/12ε+ in a 9ε-/9ε+ gravitino shell. The proton may also be considered as a gravitino encapsulating a W+ boson. A W+ boson may in turn be considered as a photon encapsulating a positron. Note: NPQG has no missing anti-matter.
A composite particle with a formula of 3ε-/3ε+. The electron anti-neutrino has the same formula. Neutrinos are Majorana particles.
A composite particle with a formula of 9ε-/9ε+ in a 9ε-/9ε+ gravitino shell. A neutron is a gravitino encapsulating a Z boson. In turn a Z boson is a photon encapsulating an electron neutrino. Note: NPQG has no missing anti-matter.
Common fragments of protons and neutrons exploded in a collider or high energy event. Each quark type defined in the standard model has a specific electrino/positrino formula. Quarks are encapsulated in 3/3, 2/2, and 1/1 shells corresponding to Generation I, II, and III respectively.
Exotic Composite Particles and other Fragments
See the Particle Data Group data book for the myriad known exotic particles, lifetimes, characteristics. Each has a specific electrino/positrino formula and configuration. There may be unknown fragments yet to be discovered. Generally these are high-energy and short-lived particles.
Generation I fermions have a 3ε-/3ε+ electron neutrino shell.
Generation II fermions have a 2ε-/2ε+ muon neutrino shell.
Generation III fermions have a 1ε-/1ε+ tau neutrino shell.
A reaction with the spacetime æther that creates a fermion and anti-fermion. Planck sphere particles and energy are conserved, as always.
The root mean square of the energy flux wave exchanged between shells of standard matter-energy particles. This energy wave spreads out spherically through the æther.
The force of gravity is caused by convection of standard-matter energy due to the energy gradient of the spacetime æther. The energy density of æther increases with proximity to dense standard matter-energy.
TERMS FROM THE GR-QM ERA OF PHYSICS
NPQG provides several new mechanisms to explain galaxy rotation curves and the other observations that seek dark matter as a solution.
- Spacetime æther is composed of particles of matter-energy. In low gravity environments spacetime æther particles are extremely low mass and energy. However, in the presence of dense matter-energy the spacetime æther heats up and gets denser and this causes the spacetime æther to increase its participation in gravity. Thus spacetime æther is one contributor to “dark matter.”
- Matter-energy consumed by galaxy center SMBH will cease to participate in gravity if and when it joins a Planck core, as is present in SMBH under certain conditions.
- Upon a Planck core breaching the event horizon, and Planck plasma jetting, inflating, decaying, and reacting as photons, neutrinos, and other standard matter-energy and the reappearance of mass above and below the galactic plane.
- The inflation and decay of Planck plasma jets also generates a tremendous amount of new spacetime æther and this may also impact galaxy rotation curves.
The energy of spacetime spacetime æther and the galaxy local outflow of spacetime æther are the causes for the phenomenon targeted by dark energy theory.
NPQG is a model of a recycling universe with no known beginning nor end. The concept of the Big Bang is replaced with perpetual and intermittent Planck plasma emission throughout the cosmos, and especially from AGN SMBH.
The Big Bang theory proposes an initial explosive event that creates the universe. The initial explosion is immediately preceded by cosmic inflation that is faster than the speed of light. In NPQG the physical implementation for crunch, bang, inflation, expansion is the SMBH in each galaxy. These processes are galaxy local, distributed, intermittent, and independent.
There is no missing anti-matter in NPQG. Anti-matter is largely captured as the payload inside protons and neutrons. Free anti-matter quickly reacts and the reaction products are photons, and other standard matter-energy. Planck sphere particles are indestructible and are conserved in all reactions.
This term from the Big Bang era is obsolete in NPQG. Any writings that use this term or other euphemisms that imply a time relative to the Big Bang (e.g., “early time,” “beginning of the universe,” “primordial,” “late time,” etc.) should be re-evaluated and re-framed.
An ill-defined term related to general relativity mathematics producing infinites in a black hole. Instead, NPQG defines a phase change from dense standard matter-energy into Planck particles and this is where general relativity does not apply. Under certain conditions, Planck particles may escape from black holes because they are not subject to the gravity of general relativity.
The galaxies in the universe.
Many Worlds Interpretation
Vacuum, Quantum Vacuum
- AGN : Active galactic nuclei
- BB : Big Bang
- BBIT : Big Bang inflation theory
- BH : black hole
- CMB : cosmic microwave background
- ε⊖ or ε- : electrino
- ε⊕ or ε+ : positrino
- FCC : face-centered cubic
- GR : general relativity
- N : neutron
- NPQG : Neoclassical Physics and Quantum Gravity
- NS : neutron star
- P : proton
- QM : quantum mechanics
- S : entropy
- SM : standard model
- SMBH : supermassive black hole
J Mark Morris : San Diego : California : 2018 – 2020